Next Article in Journal
How the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Period Influenced the Health Status and Determined Changes in Professional Practice among Obstetrics and Gynecology Doctors in Romania
Next Article in Special Issue
OSA Upper Airways Surgery: A Targeted Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Minimal Important Difference and Patient Acceptable Symptom State for the Forgotten Joint Score
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Allergic and Non-Allergic Rhinitis
 
 
Review

Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pathophysiological Perspective

1
Department of Sleep Medicine, Hospital Antoine Beclere, 92140 Clamart, France
2
Ear Nose Throat (ENT) Unit, Head & Neck Department, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, Romagna Health Service, 48121 Ravenna, Italy
3
Clinic of Pneumology and Allergology, Center for Sleep Medicine and Respiratory Care, Institute for Pneumology at the University Witten/Herdecke, 42699 Solingen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Salim Surani and Stefanie Krick
Medicina 2021, 57(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040323
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder. Recently identified pathophysiological contributing factors include airway collapsibility, poor pharyngeal muscle responsiveness, a low arousal threshold, and a high loop gain. Understanding the pathophysiology is of pivotal importance to select the most effective treatment option. It is well documented that conventional treatments (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), upper airway surgery, and dental appliance) may not always be successful in the presence of non-anatomical traits, especially in mild to moderate OSA. Orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) consists of isotonic and isometric exercises targeted to oral and oropharyngeal structures, with the aim of increasing muscle tone, endurance, and coordinated movements of pharyngeal and peripharyngeal muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of OMT in reducing snoring, apnea–hypopnea index, and daytime sleepiness, and improving oxygen saturations and sleep quality. Myofunctional therapy helps to reposition the tongue, improve nasal breathing, and increase muscle tone in pediatric and adult OSA patients. Studies have shown that OMT prevents residual OSA in children after adenotonsillectomy and helps adherence in CPAP-treated OSA patients. Randomized multi-institutional studies will be necessary in the future to determine the effectiveness of OMT in a single or combined modality targeted approach in the treatment of OSA. In this narrative review, we present up-to-date literature data, focusing on the role of OSA pathophysiology concepts concerning pharyngeal anatomical collapsibility and muscle responsiveness, underlying the response to OMT in OSA patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep-disordered breathing; apnea; myofunctional therapy; oropharyngeal exercises; oral motor exercises sleep-disordered breathing; apnea; myofunctional therapy; oropharyngeal exercises; oral motor exercises
MDPI and ACS Style

Koka, V.; De Vito, A.; Roisman, G.; Petitjean, M.; Filograna Pignatelli, G.R.; Padovani, D.; Randerath, W. Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pathophysiological Perspective. Medicina 2021, 57, 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040323

AMA Style

Koka V, De Vito A, Roisman G, Petitjean M, Filograna Pignatelli GR, Padovani D, Randerath W. Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pathophysiological Perspective. Medicina. 2021; 57(4):323. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koka, Venkata, Andrea De Vito, Gabriel Roisman, Michel Petitjean, Giulio Romano Filograna Pignatelli, Davide Padovani, and Winfried Randerath. 2021. "Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pathophysiological Perspective" Medicina 57, no. 4: 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040323

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop