Computer- and Robot-Assisted Therapies to Aid Social and Intellectual Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
3.1. Robot Interventions
3.2. Interventions with Serious Computer Games
Conflicts of Interest
|Therapy Target||Author (Year)||Study Purpose||Additional Information|
|Serious Computer Games|
|Eye contact, communication, social interaction||Aresti-Bartolome and Garcia-Zapirain (2015) ||Purpose: Assess how rehabilitation activities and supervised computer games added to a system designed for children with ASD can assist communication and interaction between children with ASD & professionals.|
|Emotion recognition, mentalizing, social skills||Rice et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Determine the effects of FaceSay on ability of children with ASD to recognize emotions, understand another’s perspective, and improve their social skills compared with those not receiving the intervention.||Symbionica LLC. FaceSay™ Social Skills Software Games. http://www.facesay.com/|
|Executive function skills: Working memory, Cognitive flexibility, attention, & inhibition||de Vries et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Study 2 executive function training conditions: a working-memory (WM) training, and a cognitive flexibility training against a mock training control.||Prins, P. J., Ten Brink, E., Dovis, S., Ponsioen, A., Geurts, H. M., de Vries, M., & Van der Oord, S. (2013). “Braingame Brian”: Toward an executive function training program with game elements for children with ADHD and cognitive control problems. Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications, 2(1) doi:10.1089/g4h.2013.0004|
|Social relationship levels of intimacy||Boyd et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Explore the relationship between specific game elements and level of intimacy in social relationships for children with social skill challenges.||SymPlay LLC. Zody’s World: The Clock of Catastrophe. https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/zodys-world-clockcatastrophe/id821791253?mt=8|
|Communication Vocabulary learning||Khowaja et al. (2019) ||Purpose: Evaluate the use of a serious game developed using a game design framework developed for people with autism on improving vocabulary learning.|
|Emotion recognition skills, ASD symptoms, social skills||Thomeer et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of a computer software (Mind Reading) and in vivo rehearsal treatment on the emotion decoding and encoding skills, autism symptoms, and social skills of children with HFASD.||Baron-Cohen, S., Golen, O., Wheelright, S., Hill, J. J. (2004). Mind Reading: The interactive guide to emotions. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.|
|Speech target productions||DeThorne et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Examine the effectiveness of 2 speech/language (S/L) interventions aimed at facilitating children’s multisyllabic productions: one incorporated in a novel computerized feedback system (VocSyl) & the other using a traditional noncomputerized pacing board.||Hailpern, J. M., Karahalios, K., DeThorne, L., Halle, J. (2010). Vocsyl: visualizing syllable production for children with ASD and speech delays. Assets ‘10. 297–298|
|Collaborative play behavior||Huskens et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Investigate the effectiveness of a brief robot-mediated intervention based on Lego therapy on improving collaborative behaviors (i.e., interaction initiations, responses, & play together) between children with ASD & their siblings during play sessions.||Aldebaran Robotics. Nao. https://www.ald.softbankrobotics.com/en/cool-robots/nao LeGoff, D. B. (2004). Use of LEGO® as a therapeutic medium for improving social competence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 557–571.|
|Sensory, negative and repetitive behaviors, and affective states||Srinivasan et al. (2015) ||Purpose: Systematically compare the effects of 8-wk long rhythm & robotic therapies to standard of care intervention on behavioral, affective, social communication & motor skills.||Aldebaran Robotics. Nao. (see reference above) WowWee. Rovio. http://wowwee.com/about/companyhistory|
|Social attention patterns||Srinivasan et al. (2016) ||Purpose: Study the effects of novel movement based interventions to current standard of care interventions for children with ASD; compare effects of human vs, robot trainer.||Aldebaran Robotics. Nao. (see reference above) WowWee. Rovio. (see reference above)|
|Social skills, Communication||Taheri et al. (2018a) ||Purpose: Evaluate robot-assisted clinical interventions with a therapist and social robots involving group games to study the impact on social & communication skills and stereotyped behaviors on fraternal twins with ASD. Pilot study.||Aldebaran Robotics. Nao. (see reference above) Robokind Company. Alice-R50. https://www.robokind.com/|
|Communication, Happiness||van Straten et al. (2018) ||Purpose: Playing puzzle game with a robot with required communication. The study examines the effects of intonation (normal vs. monotonous) combined with different bodily appearance of an embodied robot (mechanical vs. humanized) on treatment outcomes of robot-mediated therapy sessions for children with ASD.||This study was embedded in the BPicASSo project, which focuses on investigating the effectiveness of Pivotal Response Treatment for young children with ASD. Aldebaran Robotics. Nao. (see reference above)|
|Social interaction, acceptance of facial expression||Pour et al. (2018) ||Purpose: An initial attempt to develop a robotic platform for human-robot reciprocal interactions through facial expressions, investigating it acceptability and performance on children with ASD.||R50-Alice by Hanson RoboKind Company http://www.robokindrobots.com/|
|Social skills, social behaviors, communication, imitation, eye-hand coordination, classification, Joint attention and pointing||Taheri et al. (2018b) ||Purpose: Evaluate robot-assisted group games programs involving:||Aldebaran Robotics. Nao. (see reference above) Robokind Company. Alice-R50 (see reference above)|
|Social skills, joint interaction, gaze orientation, pointing, vocal instruction||David et al. (2018) ||Purpose: Use of social robot to evaluate impact of. social cues on maintenance of joint attention by the child in a robot-child game||NAO developed by Softbank Robotics: Gouaillier D, Hugel V, Blazevic P, Kilner C, Monceaux J, Lafourcade P, Maisonnier B (2009) Mechatronic design of NAO humanoid. In: Robotics and automation, 2009. ICRA’09. IEEE international conference on 769–774. IEEE|
|Social skills, motor imitation, expressive/receptive language, spontaneous requests||Desideri et al. (2018) ||Purpose: Conduct a pilot test evaluating the impact of a social robot during education sessions to drive engagement and learning achievement||Aldebaran documentation. (2018). http://doc.aldebaran.com/2-1/family/robots/index_robots.html#all-robots.|
|Communication, sight word instruction, imitation, gazing, pointing, clapping||Saadatzi et al. (2018) ||Purpose: Evaluate a tutoring system featuring virtual teacher instructing sight words, and a humanoid robot emulating a peer upon the child’s word acquisition, retention, and maintenance performance||This study combined virtual reality technology (an avatar as virtual teacher) and social robotics for tutoring children with ASD.|
|Cognitive and motor skills, gestural learning||So et al. (2018) ||Purpose: Evaluate robot-based gestural training sessions utilizing social robot, NAO, whom children were told to imitate with goal to reduce the gestural delay in children with ASD in their early childhood.||NAO (see reference above)|
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DiPietro, J.; Kelemen, A.; Liang, Y.; Sik-Lanyi, C. Computer- and Robot-Assisted Therapies to Aid Social and Intellectual Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medicina 2019, 55, 440. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080440
DiPietro J, Kelemen A, Liang Y, Sik-Lanyi C. Computer- and Robot-Assisted Therapies to Aid Social and Intellectual Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medicina. 2019; 55(8):440. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080440Chicago/Turabian Style
DiPietro, Joan, Arpad Kelemen, Yulan Liang, and Cecilia Sik-Lanyi. 2019. "Computer- and Robot-Assisted Therapies to Aid Social and Intellectual Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder" Medicina 55, no. 8: 440. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080440