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Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review

Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Institution for Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital, 182 88 Stockholm, Sweden
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(8), 850-865;
Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthetics)
Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional α-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: ambulatory surgery; analgesia; multi-modal analgesia; balanced analgesia; postoperative pain ambulatory surgery; analgesia; multi-modal analgesia; balanced analgesia; postoperative pain
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Jakobsson, J.G. Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 850-865.

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