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Assessment of Avermectins-Induced Toxicity in Animals

Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Department of Pathology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, Government College University Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture Multan, Multan 59300, Pakistan
Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago de Chile, Estación Central, Santiago 9160000, Chile
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Vicerrectoria de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Estación Central, Santiago 9160000, Chile
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jong Heon Kim
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(3), 332;
Received: 10 December 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 21 January 2022 / Published: 9 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Compounds with Medicinal Value)
Macrocyclic lactones, particularly the avermectins, have completely revolutionized the approaches aimed at control of parasites. These avermectins are the most widely used anti-parasitic drugs in veterinary field with sales exceeding one billion US dollars annually. However, before clinical usage, their safety evaluation in the animals is a major critical factor that must be considered. Many studies have reported the negative effects of avermectins like ivermectin, abamectin, doramectin, and eprinomectin on the host animals. These harmful effects arise from avermectins targeting GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels present both in the parasites and the host animals. In this review, various modes of avermectins action along with the negative effects on the host like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and endocrine disruption were discussed in detail. Furthermore, other important issues like ecotoxicity, drug resistance, and drug residues in milk associated with avermectins usage were also discussed, which need special attention. View Full-Text
Keywords: avermectins; parasite; toxicity; animals; safety avermectins; parasite; toxicity; animals; safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salman, M.; Abbas, R.Z.; Mehmood, K.; Hussain, R.; Shah, S.; Faheem, M.; Zaheer, T.; Abbas, A.; Morales, B.; Aneva, I.; Martínez, J.L. Assessment of Avermectins-Induced Toxicity in Animals. Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15, 332.

AMA Style

Salman M, Abbas RZ, Mehmood K, Hussain R, Shah S, Faheem M, Zaheer T, Abbas A, Morales B, Aneva I, Martínez JL. Assessment of Avermectins-Induced Toxicity in Animals. Pharmaceuticals. 2022; 15(3):332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salman, Muhammad, Rao Zahid Abbas, Khalid Mehmood, Riaz Hussain, Sehar Shah, Mehwish Faheem, Tean Zaheer, Asghar Abbas, Bernardo Morales, Ina Aneva, and José L. Martínez. 2022. "Assessment of Avermectins-Induced Toxicity in Animals" Pharmaceuticals 15, no. 3: 332.

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