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Article

Less Polar Compounds and Targeted Antioxidant Potential (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Codium adhaerens C. Agardh 1822

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Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Food and Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Laboratory for Aquaculture Biotechnology, Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marianna Carbone and Maria Letizia Ciavatta
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(9), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090944
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 18 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Biomedical Potential of Marine Natural Products)
Codium adhaerens from the Adriatic Sea (Croatia) was comprehensively investigated regarding less polar compounds for the first time. Although there are several phytochemical studies on C. adhaerens from other regions, this is the first report on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fresh (FrCa) and air-dried (DrCa) samples. The novelty is also related to its targeted antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. The main aims were to: (a) identify and compare VOCs of FrCa and DrCa obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and hydrodistillation (HD); (b) determine fatty acid (FA) composition of freeze-dried sample (FdCa); (c) determine the composition of less polar fractions of FdCa by high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS); and (d) comprehensively evaluate the antioxidant activity of the fractions by four in vitro assays and in vivo zebrafish model (including embryotoxicity). Significant changes of VOCs were found after air drying. ω6 FAs were present in higher content than ω3 FAs indicating C. adhaerens as a good source of dietary polyunsaturated FAs. The results obtained in vivo correlate well with in vitro methods and both fractions exerted similar antioxidative responses which is in agreement with the high abundance of present biomolecules with known antioxidant properties (e.g., fucoxanthin, pheophytin a, and pheophorbide a). These results suggest that C. adhaerens might be a potent source of natural antioxidants that could be further used in the research of oxidative stress-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: dimethyl sulfide; heptadecane; pheophytin a and its derivatives; pheophorbide a and its derivatives; radical scavenging and antioxidant power; zebrafish model dimethyl sulfide; heptadecane; pheophytin a and its derivatives; pheophorbide a and its derivatives; radical scavenging and antioxidant power; zebrafish model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radman, S.; Cikoš, A.-M.; Flanjak, I.; Babić, S.; Čižmek, L.; Šubarić, D.; Čož-Rakovac, R.; Jokić, S.; Jerković, I. Less Polar Compounds and Targeted Antioxidant Potential (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Codium adhaerens C. Agardh 1822. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 944. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090944

AMA Style

Radman S, Cikoš A-M, Flanjak I, Babić S, Čižmek L, Šubarić D, Čož-Rakovac R, Jokić S, Jerković I. Less Polar Compounds and Targeted Antioxidant Potential (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Codium adhaerens C. Agardh 1822. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(9):944. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090944

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radman, Sanja, Ana-Marija Cikoš, Ivana Flanjak, Sanja Babić, Lara Čižmek, Drago Šubarić, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac, Stela Jokić, and Igor Jerković. 2021. "Less Polar Compounds and Targeted Antioxidant Potential (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Codium adhaerens C. Agardh 1822" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 9: 944. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090944

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