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Article

Pharmacokinetic Investigation of Commercially Available Edible Marijuana Products in Humans: Potential Influence of Body Composition and Influence on Glucose Control

1
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1582, USA
2
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1680, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(8), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080817
Received: 26 July 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
The purpose of the study was to describe and compare the pharmacokinetics of five commercial edible marijuana products, determine the influence of body composition on pharmacokinetics, and, in light of epidemiology suggesting marijuana may offer diabetes protection, explore the influence of edible marijuana on glucose tolerance. Seven regular users of marijuana self-administered five edible products in a randomized crossover design; each product contained 10 mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Thirty minutes following marijuana ingestion, participants imbibed a 75 g glucose beverage. Time-to-peak plasma THC concentration ranged between 35 and 90 min; maximal plasma THC concentration (Cmax) ranged between 3.2 and 5.5 ng/mL. Differences between products in plasma THC concentration during the first 20–30 min were detected (p = 0.019). Relations were identified between body composition and pharmacokinetic parameters for some products; however, none of these body composition characteristics were consistently related to pharmacokinetics across all five of the products. Edible marijuana had no effect on oral glucose tolerance compared with a marijuana-free control (Matsuda Index; p > 0.395). Commercially available edible marijuana products evoke different plasma THC concentrations shortly after ingestion, but do not appear to influence acute glucose regulation. These data may allow recreational marijuana users to make informed decisions pertaining to rates of edible marijuana ingestion and avoid overdose. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoid; diabetes; insulin; delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol cannabis; cannabinoid; diabetes; insulin; delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ewell, T.R.; Abbotts, K.S.S.; Williams, N.N.B.; Butterklee, H.M.; Bomar, M.C.; Harms, K.J.; Rebik, J.D.; Mast, S.M.; Akagi, N.; Dooley, G.P.; Bell, C. Pharmacokinetic Investigation of Commercially Available Edible Marijuana Products in Humans: Potential Influence of Body Composition and Influence on Glucose Control. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 817. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080817

AMA Style

Ewell TR, Abbotts KSS, Williams NNB, Butterklee HM, Bomar MC, Harms KJ, Rebik JD, Mast SM, Akagi N, Dooley GP, Bell C. Pharmacokinetic Investigation of Commercially Available Edible Marijuana Products in Humans: Potential Influence of Body Composition and Influence on Glucose Control. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(8):817. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080817

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ewell, Taylor R., Kieran S.S. Abbotts, Natasha N.B. Williams, Hannah M. Butterklee, Matthew C. Bomar, Kole J. Harms, Jordan D. Rebik, Sarah M. Mast, Natalie Akagi, Gregory P. Dooley, and Christopher Bell. 2021. "Pharmacokinetic Investigation of Commercially Available Edible Marijuana Products in Humans: Potential Influence of Body Composition and Influence on Glucose Control" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 8: 817. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080817

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