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Review

Pharmaceutical Drugs and Natural Therapeutic Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1
Department of Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia
2
Department of Zoology and Anthropology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Óscar López
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(8), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080806
Received: 3 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multitarget Drug Discovery and Pharmacology)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most widespread form of diabetes, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and inefficient insulin secretion and action. Primary care in T2DM is pharmacological, using drugs of several groups that include insulin sensitisers (e.g., biguanides, thiazolidinediones), insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulphonylureas, meglinides), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and the newest incretin-based therapies and sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. However, their long-term application can cause many harmful side effects, emphasising the importance of the using natural therapeutic products. Natural health substances including non-flavonoid polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol, curcumin, tannins, and lignans), flavonoids (e.g., anthocyanins, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, naringin, rutin, and kaempferol), plant fruits, vegetables and other products (e.g., garlic, green tea, blackcurrant, rowanberry, bilberry, strawberry, cornelian cherry, olive oil, sesame oil, and carrot) may be a safer alternative to primary pharmacological therapy. They are recommended as food supplements to prevent and/or ameliorate T2DM-related complications. In the advanced stage of T2DM, the combination therapy of synthetic agents and natural compounds with synergistic interactions makes the treatment more efficient. In this review, both pharmaceutical drugs and selected natural products, as well as combination therapies, are characterized. Mechanisms of their action and possible negative side effects are also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; molecular mechanisms; treatment; pharmaceutical drugs; natural therapeutic products; combination therapy type 2 diabetes mellitus; molecular mechanisms; treatment; pharmaceutical drugs; natural therapeutic products; combination therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blahova, J.; Martiniakova, M.; Babikova, M.; Kovacova, V.; Mondockova, V.; Omelka, R. Pharmaceutical Drugs and Natural Therapeutic Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080806

AMA Style

Blahova J, Martiniakova M, Babikova M, Kovacova V, Mondockova V, Omelka R. Pharmaceutical Drugs and Natural Therapeutic Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(8):806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blahova, Jana, Monika Martiniakova, Martina Babikova, Veronika Kovacova, Vladimira Mondockova, and Radoslav Omelka. 2021. "Pharmaceutical Drugs and Natural Therapeutic Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 8: 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080806

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