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Article

Action of Carvacrol on Parascaris sp. and Antagonistic Effect on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
INRAE, Université de Tours, ISP, 37380 Nouzilly, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcelo J. Nieto
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(6), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060505
Received: 24 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiparasitics)
Parascaris sp. is the only ascarid parasitic nematode in equids and one of the most threatening infectious organisms in horses. Only a limited number of compounds are available for treatment of horse helminthiasis, and Parascaris sp. worms have developed resistance to the three major anthelmintic families. In order to overcome the appearance of resistance, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The active ingredients of herbal essential oils are potentially effective antiparasitic drugs. Carvacrol is one of the principal chemicals of essential oil from Origanum, Thymus, Coridothymus, Thymbra, Satureja and Lippia herbs. However, the antiparasitic mode of action of carvacrol is poorly understood. Here, the objective of the work was to characterize the activity of carvacrol on Parascaris sp. nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function both in vivo with the use of worm neuromuscular flap preparations and in vitro with two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology on nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We developed a neuromuscular contraction assay for Parascaris body flaps and obtained acetylcholine concentration-dependent contraction responses. Strikingly, we observed that 300 µM carvacrol fully and irreversibly abolished Parascaris sp. muscle contractions elicited by acetylcholine. Similarly, carvacrol antagonized acetylcholine-induced currents from both the nicotine-sensitive AChR and the morantel-sensitive AChR subtypes. Thus, we show for the first time that body muscle flap preparation is a tractable approach to investigating the pharmacology of Parascaris sp. neuromuscular system. Our results suggest an intriguing mode of action for carvacrol, being a potent antagonist of muscle nAChRs of Parascaris sp. worms, which may account for its antiparasitic potency. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parascaris; carvacrol; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; muscle contraction; electrophysiology; Xenopus oocytes; mode of action Parascaris; carvacrol; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; muscle contraction; electrophysiology; Xenopus oocytes; mode of action
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trailovic, S.M.; Rajkovic, M.; Marjanovic, D.S.; Neveu, C.; Charvet, C.L. Action of Carvacrol on Parascaris sp. and Antagonistic Effect on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060505

AMA Style

Trailovic SM, Rajkovic M, Marjanovic DS, Neveu C, Charvet CL. Action of Carvacrol on Parascaris sp. and Antagonistic Effect on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(6):505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trailovic, Sasa M., Milan Rajkovic, Djordje S. Marjanovic, Cédric Neveu, and Claude L. Charvet 2021. "Action of Carvacrol on Parascaris sp. and Antagonistic Effect on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 6: 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060505

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