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Article

Safety and Tolerability of Mass Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kenya: An Active Surveillance Study

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Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
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Pharmacy and Poisons Board, 27663-00506 Nairobi, Kenya
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Ministry of Health -National Neglected Tropical Diseases Program, 30016-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
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Ministry of Health -National Public Health Laboratory, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, 20750-00202 Nairobi, Kenya
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Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya
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Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials, Botswana Medicines Regulatory Authority, Gaborone 505155, Botswana
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Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), 54840-00200 Nairobi, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Syed Shahzad Hasan
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030264
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
Preventive chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) is the core intervention strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF). We conducted a large-scale prospective active safety surveillance study to identify the incidence, type, severity, and risk factors for adverse events (AEs) following mass drug administration (MDA) of single-dose DEC and ALB in 10,010 participants from Kilifi County, Kenya. AEs were actively monitored and graded at 24 h, 48 h, and on day 7 Post-MDA. Out of 10,010 enrolled study participants, 1621 participants reported a total of 3102 AEs during a seven-day follow-up. The cumulative incidence of AEs was 16.2% (95% CI, 15.5–16.9%). The proportion of participants who experienced one, two, or ≥three types of AEs was 9.2%, 4.6%, 2.4%, respectively. AEs were mild (87.3%), moderate (12.4%), and severe (0.3%) and resolved within 72 h. The five most common AEs were dizziness (5.9%), headache (5.6%), loss of appetite (3.3%), fever (2.9%), and drowsiness (2.6%). Older age, taking concurrent medications, ≥three tablets of DEC, and type of meal taken before MDA were significant predictors of AEs. One in six participants experienced systemic mild-to-moderate severity grading and transient AEs. DEC and ALB co-administration for the elimination of LF is generally safe and well-tolerated. View Full-Text
Keywords: lymphatic filariasis; adverse events; mass drug administration; diethylcarbamazine; albendazole; Kenya lymphatic filariasis; adverse events; mass drug administration; diethylcarbamazine; albendazole; Kenya
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khaemba, C.; Barry, A.; Omondi, W.P.; Bota, K.; Matendechero, S.; Wandera, C.; Siyoi, F.; Kirui, E.; Oluka, M.; Nambwa, P.; Gurumurthy, P.; Njenga, S.M.; Guantai, A.; Aklillu, E. Safety and Tolerability of Mass Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kenya: An Active Surveillance Study. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030264

AMA Style

Khaemba C, Barry A, Omondi WP, Bota K, Matendechero S, Wandera C, Siyoi F, Kirui E, Oluka M, Nambwa P, Gurumurthy P, Njenga SM, Guantai A, Aklillu E. Safety and Tolerability of Mass Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kenya: An Active Surveillance Study. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(3):264. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030264

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khaemba, Christabel, Abbie Barry, Wyckliff P. Omondi, Kefa Bota, Sultani Matendechero, Cecilia Wandera, Fred Siyoi, Elvis Kirui, Margaret Oluka, Pamela Nambwa, Parthasarathi Gurumurthy, Sammy M. Njenga, Anastacia Guantai, and Eleni Aklillu. 2021. "Safety and Tolerability of Mass Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kenya: An Active Surveillance Study" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 3: 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030264

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