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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Anti-Human Cancer Experiments Investigating the Use of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) for Photodynamic Therapy

Department of Environmental Health, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
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Academic Editor: Serge Mordon
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(3), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030229
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 27 February 2021 / Published: 7 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy 2021)
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is an amino acid derivative and a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photophysical feature of PpIX is clinically used in photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). These clinical applications are potentially based on in vitro cell culture experiments. Thus, conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro 5-ALA PDT experiments is meaningful and may provide opportunities to consider future perspectives in this field. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed to summarize the in vitro 5-ALA PDT experiments and calculated the effectiveness of 5-ALA PDT for several cancer cell types. In total, 412 articles were identified, and 77 were extracted based on our inclusion criteria. The calculated effectiveness of 5-ALA PDT was statistically analyzed, which revealed a tendency of cancer-classification-dependent sensitivity to 5-ALA PDT, and stomach cancer was significantly more sensitive to 5-ALA PDT compared with cancers of different origins. Based on our analysis, we suggest a standardized in vitro experimental protocol for 5-ALA PDT. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid; 5-ALA; dALA; δALA; PpIX; protoporphyrin IX; photodynamic therapy; PDT 5-aminolevulinic acid; 5-ALA; dALA; δALA; PpIX; protoporphyrin IX; photodynamic therapy; PDT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shinoda, Y.; Kato, D.; Ando, R.; Endo, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Fujiwara, Y. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Anti-Human Cancer Experiments Investigating the Use of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) for Photodynamic Therapy. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030229

AMA Style

Shinoda Y, Kato D, Ando R, Endo H, Takahashi T, Tsuneoka Y, Fujiwara Y. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Anti-Human Cancer Experiments Investigating the Use of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) for Photodynamic Therapy. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(3):229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030229

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shinoda, Yo, Daitetsu Kato, Ryosuke Ando, Hikaru Endo, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yayoi Tsuneoka, and Yasuyuki Fujiwara. 2021. "Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Anti-Human Cancer Experiments Investigating the Use of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) for Photodynamic Therapy" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 3: 229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030229

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