Evolution of nanomedicine is the re-design of synthetic and biological carriers to implement novel theranostic platforms. In recent years, bacteriophage research favors this process, which has opened up new roads in drug and gene delivery studies. By displaying antibodies, peptides, or proteins on the surface of different bacteriophages through the phage display technique, it is now possible to unravel specific molecular determinants of both cancer cells and tumor-associated microenvironmental molecules. Downstream applications are manifold, with peptides being employed most of the times to functionalize drug carriers and improve their therapeutic index. Bacteriophages themselves were proven, in this scenario, to be good carriers for imaging molecules and therapeutics as well. Moreover, manipulation of their genetic material to stably vehiculate suicide genes within cancer cells substantially changed perspectives in gene therapy. In this review, we provide examples of how amenable phages can be used as anticancer agents, especially because their systemic administration is possible. We also provide some insights into how their immunogenic profile can be modulated and exploited in immuno-oncology for vaccine production.
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