Next Article in Journal
Identification of Novel Anthracycline Resistance Genes and Their Inhibitors
Next Article in Special Issue
Exosome microRNAs in Metabolic Syndrome as Tools for the Early Monitoring of Diabetes and Possible Therapeutic Options
Previous Article in Journal
Side Effects of mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines among Young Adults (18–30 Years Old): An Independent Post-Marketing Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Extracellular Vesicles: A Double-Edged Sword in Sepsis
Review

Extracellular Vesicles in Human Milk

1
Laboratory of Experimental Clinical Chemistry and Vesicle Observation Center, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Clinical Division of Haematology and Haemostaseology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18–20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Samir EL Andaloussi, Joel Nordin, André Görgens, Daniel W. Hagey and Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(10), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14101050
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 15 October 2021
Milk supports the growth and development of infants. An increasing number of mostly recent studies have demonstrated that milk contains a hitherto undescribed component called extracellular vesicles (EVs). This presents questions regarding why milk contains EVs and what their function is. Recently, we showed that EVs in human milk expose tissue factor, the protein that triggers coagulation or blood clotting, and that milk-derived EVs promote coagulation. Because bovine milk, which also contains EVs, completely lacks this coagulant activity, important differences are present in the biological functions of human milk-derived EVs between species. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the presence and biochemical composition of milk EVs, their function(s) and potential clinical applications such as in probiotics, and the unique problems that milk EVs encounter in vivo, including survival of the gastrointestinal conditions encountered in the newborn. The main focus of this review will be human milk-derived EVs, but when available, we will also include information regarding non-human milk for comparison. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast feeding; development; extracellular vesicles; infant; immune; inflammatory intestinal disease; milk breast feeding; development; extracellular vesicles; infant; immune; inflammatory intestinal disease; milk
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, Y.; Thaler, J.; Nieuwland, R. Extracellular Vesicles in Human Milk. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14101050

AMA Style

Hu Y, Thaler J, Nieuwland R. Extracellular Vesicles in Human Milk. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(10):1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14101050

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Yong, Johannes Thaler, and Rienk Nieuwland. 2021. "Extracellular Vesicles in Human Milk" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 10: 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14101050

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop