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Review

Cancer Stem Cells and Nucleolin as Drivers of Carcinogenesis

1
CNC—Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), Faculty of Medicine (Polo 1), University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
2
TREAT U, SA—Parque Industrial de Taveiro, Lote 44, 3045-508 Coimbra, Portugal
3
UC—University of Coimbra, CIBB, Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14010060
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Translational Biomarkers and Targeted Therapies)
Cancer, one of the most mortal diseases worldwide, is characterized by the gain of specific features and cellular heterogeneity. Clonal evolution is an established theory to explain heterogeneity, but the discovery of cancer stem cells expanded the concept to include the hierarchical growth and plasticity of cancer cells. The activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and its molecular players are widely correlated with the presence of cancer stem cells in tumors. Moreover, the acquisition of certain oncological features may be partially attributed to alterations in the levels, location or function of nucleolin, a multifunctional protein involved in several cellular processes. This review aims at integrating the established hallmarks of cancer with the plasticity of cancer cells as an emerging hallmark; responsible for tumor heterogeneity; therapy resistance and relapse. The discussion will contextualize the involvement of nucleolin in the establishment of cancer hallmarks and its application as a marker protein for targeted anticancer therapies View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor heterogeneity; drug resistance; cancer stem cells; nucleolin; targeted therapies; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition tumor heterogeneity; drug resistance; cancer stem cells; nucleolin; targeted therapies; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carvalho, L.S.; Gonçalves, N.; Fonseca, N.A.; Moreira, J.N. Cancer Stem Cells and Nucleolin as Drivers of Carcinogenesis. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14010060

AMA Style

Carvalho LS, Gonçalves N, Fonseca NA, Moreira JN. Cancer Stem Cells and Nucleolin as Drivers of Carcinogenesis. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(1):60. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14010060

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carvalho, Laura Sofia, Nélio Gonçalves, Nuno André Fonseca, and João Nuno Moreira. 2021. "Cancer Stem Cells and Nucleolin as Drivers of Carcinogenesis" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 1: 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14010060

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