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Open AccessArticle

Cytokine-Induced Killer (CIK) Cells, In Vitro Expanded under Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) Conditions, Remain Stable over Time after Cryopreservation

1
Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, The University of Turin, piazza Polonia 94. 10126 Torino, Italy
2
Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Laboratory, Paediatric Onco-Haematology Division, Regina Margherita Children’s Hospital, City of Health and Science of Turin; 10126 Torino, Italy
3
Department of Oncology, University of Turin, 10060 Torino, Italy
4
Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO—IRCCS—Str. Prov.le 142, km. 3,95, 10060 Candiolo (TO), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13050093
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 9 May 2020 / Accepted: 10 May 2020 / Published: 12 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology)
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are advanced therapy medicinal products, so their production and freezing process has to be validated before their clinical use, to verify their stability as a drug formulation according to the good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines. We designed a stability program for our GMP-manufactured CIK cells, evaluating the viability, identity and potency of cryopreserved CIK cells at varying time periods from freezing, and compared them with fresh CIK cells. We evaluated the effects of the cryopreservation method, transportation, and the length of time of different process phases (pre-freezing, freezing and post-thawing) on the stability of CIK cells. This included a worst case for each stage. The expanded CIK cells were viable for up to 30 min from the addition of the freezing solution, when transported on dry ice within 48 h once frozen, within 60 min from thawing and from 12 months of freezing while preserving their cytotoxic effects. The reference samples, cryopreserved simultaneously in tubes and following the same method, were considered representative of the batch and useful in the case of further analysis. Data obtained from this drug stability program can inform the accurate use of CIK cells in clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP); good manufacturing practice (GMP); cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells; cryopreservation; drug formulation; stability program advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP); good manufacturing practice (GMP); cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells; cryopreservation; drug formulation; stability program
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Mareschi, K.; Adamini, A.; Castiglia, S.; Rustichelli, D.; Castello, L.; Mandese, A.; Leone, M.; Pinnetta, G.; Mesiano, G.; Ferrero, I.; Fagioli, F. Cytokine-Induced Killer (CIK) Cells, In Vitro Expanded under Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) Conditions, Remain Stable over Time after Cryopreservation. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 93.

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