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The Association Between Vascular Inflammation and Depressive Disorder. Causality, Biomarkers and Targeted Treatment

Retired pharmacologist, Gänsbühlgartenweg 7, CH-4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(5), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13050092
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 9 May 2020 / Accepted: 10 May 2020 / Published: 12 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology)
Diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction are frequently co-morbid with major depressive disorder. In the current review, it is argued that vascular inflammation is a factor that is common to all disorders and that an endothelial dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier could be involved in the induction of depression symptoms. Biomarkers for vascular inflammation include a high plasma level of C-reactive protein, soluble cell-adhesion molecules, von Willebrand factor, aldosterone, and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor α. A further possible biomarker is flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Treatment of vascular inflammation is expected to prevent or to reduce symptoms of depression. Several tentative treatments for this form of depression can be envisioned: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), valproate, Vagus-nerve stimulation, nicotinic α7 agonists, and agonists of the cannabinoid CB2-receptor. View Full-Text
Keywords: systemic low-grade inflammation; oxidative stress; geriatric depression; gender differences; leptin; EKODE; fish-oil systemic low-grade inflammation; oxidative stress; geriatric depression; gender differences; leptin; EKODE; fish-oil
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalkman, H.O. The Association Between Vascular Inflammation and Depressive Disorder. Causality, Biomarkers and Targeted Treatment. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13050092

AMA Style

Kalkman HO. The Association Between Vascular Inflammation and Depressive Disorder. Causality, Biomarkers and Targeted Treatment. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(5):92. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13050092

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalkman, Hans O. 2020. "The Association Between Vascular Inflammation and Depressive Disorder. Causality, Biomarkers and Targeted Treatment" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 5: 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13050092

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