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Iminosugars: Effects of Stereochemistry, Ring Size, and N-Substituents on Glucosidase Activities

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
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Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12030108
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates 2018)
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Abstract

N-substituted iminosugar analogues are potent inhibitors of glucosidases and glycosyltransferases with broad therapeutic applications, such as treatment of diabetes and Gaucher disease, immunosuppressive activities, and antibacterial and antiviral effects against HIV, HPV, hepatitis C, bovine diarrhea (BVDV), Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV), influenza, Zika, and dengue virus. Based on our previous work on functionalized isomeric 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-gulitol (L-gulo-piperidines, with inverted configuration at C-2 and C-5 in respect to glucose or deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)) and 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-imino-D-mannitol (D-manno-azepane derivatives) cores N-linked to different sites of glucopyranose units, we continue our studies on these alternative iminosugars bearing simple N-alkyl chains instead of glucose to understand if these easily accessed scaffolds could preserve the inhibition profile of the corresponding glucose-based N-alkyl derivatives as DNJ cores found in miglustat and miglitol drugs. Thus, a small library of iminosugars (14 compounds) displaying different stereochemistry, ring size, and N-substitutions was successfully synthesized from a common precursor, D-mannitol, by utilizing an SN2 aminocyclization reaction via two isomeric bis-epoxides. The evaluation of the prospective inhibitors on glucosidases revealed that merely D-gluco-piperidine (miglitol, 41a) and L-ido-azepane (41b) DNJ-derivatives bearing the N-hydroxylethyl group showed inhibition towards α-glucosidase with IC50 41 µM and 138 µM, respectively, using DNJ as reference (IC50 134 µM). On the other hand, β-glucosidase inhibition was achieved for glucose-inverted configuration (C-2 and C-5) derivatives, as novel L-gulo-piperidine (27a) and D-manno-azepane (27b), preserving the N-butyl chain, with IC50 109 and 184 µM, respectively, comparable to miglustat with the same N-butyl substituent (40a, IC50 172 µM). Interestingly, the seven-membered ring L-ido-azepane (40b) displayed near twice the activity (IC50 80 µM) of the corresponding D-gluco-piperidine miglustat drug (40a). Furthermore, besides α-glucosidase inhibition, both miglitol (41a) and L-ido-azepane (41b) proved to be the strongest β-glucosidase inhibitors of the series with IC50 of 4 µM. View Full-Text
Keywords: iminosugars; polyhydroxypiperidines; polyhydroxyazepanes; glucosidase inhibition; miglustat; miglitol iminosugars; polyhydroxypiperidines; polyhydroxyazepanes; glucosidase inhibition; miglustat; miglitol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zamoner, L.O.B.; Aragão-Leoneti, V.; Carvalho, I. Iminosugars: Effects of Stereochemistry, Ring Size, and N-Substituents on Glucosidase Activities. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 108.

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