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Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of the Hydroethanolic Extract from the Leaves of Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke: A Study on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

1
Laboratório de Pesquisa em Fármacos, Curso de Farmácia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, Amapá, CEP 68.903-419, Brasil
2
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inovação Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, Amapá, CEP 68.903-419, Brasil
3
Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México, C.P. 04510, México
4
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, Amapá, CEP 68.903-419, Brasil
5
Universidad de la Sierra Sur, Division de Pós-Grado, Instituto de Investigación Sobre la Salud Pública, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca, C.P. 70800, México
6
Departamento de Biotecnologia em Plantas Medicinais, Universidade de Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, CEP 14096-900, Brasil
7
Rede Bionorte, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, Amapá, CEP 68.903-419, Brasil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12030106
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract

Medicinal plants such as Aloysia polystachya are often used in the treatment of psychiatric diseases, including anxiety- and depression-related humor disturbances. In folk medicine, A. polystachya is used to treat digestive and respiratory tract disturbances, as a sedative and antidepressant agent, and as a tonic for the nerves. This study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant and anxiolytic effect from the hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of Aloysia polystachya (HELAp) in zebrafish. The extract was analyzed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS) and the main compound detected was acteoside. HELAp was administered orally (10 mg/kg) and through immersion (mg/L). The anxiolytic activity was evaluated through the scototaxis (light–dark) test using caffeine as an anxiogenic agent and buspirone as a positive control. The parameters assessed were: period spent in the white compartment (s), latency (s), alternations (n), erratic swims (n), period of freezing (s), thigmotaxis (s), and risk evaluation (n). The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the novel tank diving test using 1% ethanol, unpredictable chronic stress, and social isolation as depressors; fluoxetine was used as a positive control. The parameters assessed were: period spent at the top of the tank, latency, quadrants crossed, erratic swim, period of freezing, and distance of swam. The main chemical compound of HELAp was acteoside. The administration of the extract on zebrafish managed to revert the anxiogenic effect of caffeine without impairing their locomotion. Additionally, the treatment exerted antidepressant activity similarly to fluoxetine. Overall, the results suggest a significant anxiolytic and antidepressant activity to the extract, which is probably due to the presence of the major compound, acteoside. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aloysia polystachya; anxiolytic; antidepressant; Danio rerio Aloysia polystachya; anxiolytic; antidepressant; Danio rerio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Costa de Melo, N.; Sánchez-Ortiz, B.L.; dos Santos Sampaio, T.I.; Matias Pereira, A.C.; Pinheiro da Silva Neto, F.L.; Ribeiro da Silva, H.; Alves Soares Cruz, R.; Keita, H.; Soares Pereira, A.M.; Tavares Carvalho, J.C. Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of the Hydroethanolic Extract from the Leaves of Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke: A Study on Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 106.

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