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Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12020054

TRP Channels and Migraine: Recent Developments and New Therapeutic Opportunities

1
Headache Centre, Careggi University Hospital, Viale Pieraccini 18, 50139 Florence, Italy
2
School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Center for Advanced Pain Studies, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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PDF [2481 KB, uploaded 12 April 2019]
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Abstract

Migraine is the second-most disabling disease worldwide, and the second most common neurological disorder. Attacks can last many hours or days, and consist of multiple symptoms including headache, nausea, vomiting, hypersensitivity to stimuli such as light and sound, and in some cases, an aura is present. Mechanisms contributing to migraine are still poorly understood. However, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been repeatedly linked to the disorder, including TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPM8, and TRPA1, based on their activation by pathological stimuli related to attacks, or their modulation by drugs/natural products known to be efficacious for migraine. This review will provide a brief overview of migraine, including current therapeutics and the link to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide strongly implicated in migraine pathophysiology. Discussion will then focus on recent developments in preclinical and clinical studies that implicate TRP channels in migraine pathophysiology or in the efficacy of therapeutics. Given the use of onabotulinum toxin A (BoNTA) to treat chronic migraine, and its poorly understood mechanism, this review will also cover possible contributions of TRP channels to BoNTA efficacy. Discussion will conclude with remaining questions that require future work to more fully evaluate TRP channels as novel therapeutic targets for migraine. View Full-Text
Keywords: ion channel; TRP; cortical spreading depression; meninges; dura mater; botulinum toxin A; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; neurogenic inflammation; CGRP ion channel; TRP; cortical spreading depression; meninges; dura mater; botulinum toxin A; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; neurogenic inflammation; CGRP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Benemei, S.; Dussor, G. TRP Channels and Migraine: Recent Developments and New Therapeutic Opportunities. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 54.

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