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Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph11040099

Nanostructured TiO2 Carbon Paste Based Sensor for Determination of Methyldopa

1
Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74690-970, Brazil
2
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Cordoba, E14014 Cordoba, Spain
3
Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya str., 117198 Moscow, Russia
4
Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville 7535, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract

Methyldopa is a catecholamine widely used in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension whose determination in pharmaceutical formulae is of upmost importance for dose precision. Henceforth, a low-cost carbon paste electrode (CPE) consisting of graphite powder obtained from a crushed pencil stick was herein modified with nanostructured TiO2 (TiO2@CPE) aiming for the detection of methyldopa in pharmaceutical samples. The TiO2-modified graphite powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the oxide nanostructured morphology. Results evidenced that sensitivity was nonetheless increased due to electro-catalytic effects promoted by metal modification, and linear response obtained by differential pulse voltammetry for the determination of methyldopa (pH = 5.0) was between 10–180 μmol/L (Limit of Detection = 1 μmol/L) with the TiO2@CPE sensor. Furthermore, the constructed sensor was successfully applied in the detection of methyldopa in pharmaceutical formulations and excipients promoted no interference, that indicates that the sensor herein developed is a cheap, reliable, and useful strategy to detect methyldopa in pharmaceutical samples, and may also be applicable in determinations of similar compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: pencil graphite; metal oxide nanostructures; low cost; phenolic drug pencil graphite; metal oxide nanostructures; low cost; phenolic drug
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Garcia, L.F.; Cunha, C.E.P.; Moreno, E.K.G.; Thomaz, D.V.; Sanz Lobón, G.; Luque, R.; Somerset, V.; De Souza Gil, E. Nanostructured TiO2 Carbon Paste Based Sensor for Determination of Methyldopa. Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11, 99.

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