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Solid State Gas Sensor Research in Germany – a Status Report

Functional Materials Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT PS 6, 81730 München, Germany
Kurt-Schwabe Research Institute Meinsberg, 04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf, Germany
Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4323-4365;
Received: 25 March 2009 / Revised: 4 May 2009 / Accepted: 26 May 2009 / Published: 3 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany)
PDF [1911 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


This status report overviews activities of the German gas sensor research community. It highlights recent progress in the field of potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric, impedimetric, and field effect-based gas sensors. It is shown that besides step-by-step improvements of conventional principles, e.g. by the application of novel materials, novel principles turned out to enable new markets. In the field of mixed potential gas sensors, novel materials allow for selective detection of combustion exhaust components. The same goal can be reached by using zeolites for impedimetric gas sensors. Operando spectroscopy is a powerful tool to learn about the mechanisms in n-type and in p-type conductometric sensors and to design knowledge-based improved sensor devices. Novel deposition methods are applied to gain direct access to the material morphology as well as to obtain dense thick metal oxide films without high temperature steps. Since conductometric and impedimetric sensors have the disadvantage that a current has to pass the gas sensitive film, film morphology, electrode materials, and geometrical issues affect the sensor signal. Therefore, one tries to measure directly the Fermi level position either by measuring the gas-dependent Seebeck coefficient at high temperatures or at room temperature by applying a modified miniaturized Kelvin probe method, where surface adsorption-based work function changes drive the drain-source current of a field effect transistor. View Full-Text
Keywords: impedance spectroscopy; mixed potential; SnO2; Ga2O3; Kelvin probe; operando impedance spectroscopy; mixed potential; SnO2; Ga2O3; Kelvin probe; operando
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Moos, R.; Sahner, K.; Fleischer, M.; Guth, U.; Barsan, N.; Weimar, U. Solid State Gas Sensor Research in Germany – a Status Report. Sensors 2009, 9, 4323-4365.

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