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Article

Chlorophyll-a Pigment Measurement of Spirulina in Algal Growth Monitoring Using Portable Pulsed LED Fluorescence Lidar System

1
Environment And RemoTe sensing researcH (EARTH) Laboratory, Physics Department, College of Science, De La Salle University Manila, 1004 Taft Avenue, Manila 0922, Philippines
2
Division of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Miagao Campus, University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao 5023, Philippines
3
Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Radhakrishna Prabhu, Carlos Fernandez and Sandhya Devalla
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082940
Received: 31 January 2022 / Revised: 2 April 2022 / Accepted: 5 April 2022 / Published: 12 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring)
Chlorophyll-a measurement is important in algal growth and water quality monitoring in natural waters. A portable pulsed LED fluorescence lidar system based on the preliminary algal organic matter and pigments excitation–emission matrix (EEM) of commercialized AZTEC Spirulina powder at varying concentrations was developed. Fluorescence peaks from EEMs showed increasing intensity as the Spirulina concentration increases. Using this information, an LED fluorescence lidar with a wavelength of 385 nm, pulse width of 10 ns, and repetition frequency of 500 kHz was constructed for chlorophyll detection at 680 nm. Turbidity measurements were also conducted at 700 nm emission wavelength at the same excitation wavelength. Range-resolved fluorescence lidar signals from the portable pulsed LED fluorescence lidar system are highly correlated with the standard methods such as optical density at 680 nm (R2 = 0.87), EEM fluorescence chlorophyll-a pigment at 680 nm (R2 = 0.89), and corrected chlorophyll-a concentration (R2 =0.92). The F680/F700 lidar ratio was measured to provide a linear relationship of chlorophyll-a and turbidity in waters. The F680/F700 measurement showed strong correlations with Spirulina concentration (R2 = 0.94), absorbance at 680 nm (R2 = 0.84), EEM chlorophyll-a pigment at 680 nm (R2 = 0.83), and corrected chlorophyll-a concentration (R2 = 0.86). Results revealed that this new technique of chlorophyll-a measurement can be used as an alternative to other standard methods in algal growth monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: LED lidar; chlorophyll-a monitoring; fluorescence; remote sensing; applied optics LED lidar; chlorophyll-a monitoring; fluorescence; remote sensing; applied optics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cadondon, J.G.; Ong, P.M.B.; Vallar, E.A.; Shiina, T.; Galvez, M.C.D. Chlorophyll-a Pigment Measurement of Spirulina in Algal Growth Monitoring Using Portable Pulsed LED Fluorescence Lidar System. Sensors 2022, 22, 2940. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082940

AMA Style

Cadondon JG, Ong PMB, Vallar EA, Shiina T, Galvez MCD. Chlorophyll-a Pigment Measurement of Spirulina in Algal Growth Monitoring Using Portable Pulsed LED Fluorescence Lidar System. Sensors. 2022; 22(8):2940. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cadondon, Jumar G., Prane Mariel B. Ong, Edgar A. Vallar, Tatsuo Shiina, and Maria Cecilia D. Galvez. 2022. "Chlorophyll-a Pigment Measurement of Spirulina in Algal Growth Monitoring Using Portable Pulsed LED Fluorescence Lidar System" Sensors 22, no. 8: 2940. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082940

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