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Article

EggBlock: Design and Implementation of Solar Energy Generation and Trading Platform in Edge-Based IoT Systems with Blockchain

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Samsung Electronics, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon 10285, Korea
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School of Computing, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
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School of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Korea
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Institute for Information Technology Convergence, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Cano-Ortega, Francisco Sánchez-Sutil and Aurora Gil-de-Castro
Sensors 2022, 22(6), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062410
Received: 9 February 2022 / Revised: 6 March 2022 / Accepted: 10 March 2022 / Published: 21 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic IoT for Energy Management Systems and Smart Cities)
In this paper, to balance power supplement from the solar energy’s intermittent and unpredictable generation, we design a solar energy generation and trading platform (EggBlock) using Internet of Things (IoT) systems and blockchain technique. Without a centralized broker, the proposed EggBlock platform can promote energy trading between users equipped with solar panels, and balance demand and generation. By applying the second price sealed-bid auction, which is one of the suitable pricing mechanisms in the blockchain technique, it is possible to derive truthful bidding of market participants according to their utility function and induce the proceed transaction. Furthermore, for efficient generation of solar energy, EggBlock proposes a Q-learning-based dynamic panel control mechanism. Specifically, we set the instantaneous direction of the solar panel and the amount of power generation as the state and reward, respectively. The angle of the panel to be moved becomes an action at the next time step. Then, we continuously update the Q-table using transfer learning, which can cope with recent changes in the surrounding environment or weather. We implement the proposed EggBlock platform using Ethereum’s smart contract for reliable transactions. At the end of the paper, measurement-based experiments show that the proposed EggBlock achieves reliable and transparent energy trading on the blockchain and converges to the optimal direction with short iterations. Finally, the results of the study show that an average energy generation gain of 35% is obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar energy generation; energy trading; auction theory; testbed; measurement study; Internet of Things; blockchain; reinforcement learning solar energy generation; energy trading; auction theory; testbed; measurement study; Internet of Things; blockchain; reinforcement learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwak, S.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Oh, H. EggBlock: Design and Implementation of Solar Energy Generation and Trading Platform in Edge-Based IoT Systems with Blockchain. Sensors 2022, 22, 2410. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062410

AMA Style

Kwak S, Lee J, Kim J, Oh H. EggBlock: Design and Implementation of Solar Energy Generation and Trading Platform in Edge-Based IoT Systems with Blockchain. Sensors. 2022; 22(6):2410. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062410

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kwak, Subin, Joohyung Lee, Jangkyum Kim, and Hyeontaek Oh. 2022. "EggBlock: Design and Implementation of Solar Energy Generation and Trading Platform in Edge-Based IoT Systems with Blockchain" Sensors 22, no. 6: 2410. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062410

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