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Article

A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Music Training on Attention in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

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The Mind Research Network, 1101 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA
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Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2300 Menaul Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87107, USA
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Music Therapy—A Sound Approach, 1212 Daskalos Dr. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87123, USA
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Center for Development and Disability, Department of Pediatrics, University of New Mexico, 2300 Menaul Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Cataldo
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5642; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155642
Received: 9 June 2022 / Revised: 20 July 2022 / Accepted: 25 July 2022 / Published: 28 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosignal Sensing Analysis (EEG, MEG, ECG, PPG))
Prior studies indicate differences in brain volume and neurophysiological responses of musicians relative to non-musicians. These differences are observed in the sensory, motor, parietal, and frontal cortex. Children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience deficits in auditory, motor, and executive function domains. Therefore, we hypothesized that short-term music training in children with an FASD due to prenatal alcohol exposure may improve brain function. Children (N = 20) with an FASD were randomized to participate in either five weeks of piano training or to a control group. Selective attention was evaluated approximately seven weeks apart (pre-/post-music training or control intervention), examining longitudinal effects using the Attention Networks Test (ANT), a well-established paradigm designed to evaluate attention and inhibitory control, while recording EEG. There was a significant group by pre-/post-intervention interaction for the P250 ms peak of the event-related potential and for theta (4–7 Hz) power in the 100–300 ms time window in response to the congruent condition when the flanking stimuli were oriented congruently with the central target stimulus in fronto-central midline channels from Cz to Fz. A trend for improved reaction time at the second assessment was observed for the music trained group only. These results support the hypothesis that music training changes the neural indices of attention as assessed by the ANT in children with an FASD. This study should be extended to evaluate the effects of music training relative to a more closely matched active control and determine whether additional improvements emerge with longer term music training. View Full-Text
Keywords: EEG; attention networks test; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; music training; prenatal alcohol exposure; neurodevelopment EEG; attention networks test; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; music training; prenatal alcohol exposure; neurodevelopment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gleichmann, D.C.; Pinner, J.F.L.; Garcia, C.; Hakeem, J.H.; Kodituwakku, P.; Stephen, J.M. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Music Training on Attention in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Sensors 2022, 22, 5642. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155642

AMA Style

Gleichmann DC, Pinner JFL, Garcia C, Hakeem JH, Kodituwakku P, Stephen JM. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Music Training on Attention in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Sensors. 2022; 22(15):5642. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gleichmann, Dathan C., John F. L. Pinner, Christopher Garcia, Jaynie H. Hakeem, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, and Julia M. Stephen. 2022. "A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Music Training on Attention in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)" Sensors 22, no. 15: 5642. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155642

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