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Article

Introducing the CYSAS-S3 Dataset for Operationalizing a Mission-Oriented Cyber Situational Awareness

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Indra Digital Labs, Av. de Bruselas, 35, 28108 Alcobendas, Spain
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Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), Av. de la Paz, 137, 26006 Logroño, Spain
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Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Camí de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C. Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Ronda de Toledo, 1, 28005 Madrid, Spain
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Tarlogic, C. Quintanapalla, 8, 28050 Madrid, Spain
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Leonardo-Finmeccanica, Piazza Monte Grappa, 4, 00195 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Weizhi Meng
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5104; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145104
Received: 6 May 2022 / Revised: 25 June 2022 / Accepted: 29 June 2022 / Published: 7 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Artificial Intelligence for Cyber Security)
The digital transformation of the defence sector is not exempt from innovative requirements and challenges, with the lack of availability of reliable, unbiased and consistent data for training automatisms (machine learning algorithms, decision-making, what-if recreation of operational conditions, support the human understanding of the hybrid operational picture, personnel training/education, etc.) being one of the most relevant gaps. In the context of cyber defence, the state-of-the-art provides a plethora of data network collections that tend to lack presenting the information of all communication layers (physical to application). They are synthetically generated in scenarios far from the singularities of cyber defence operations. None of these data network collections took into consideration usage profiles and specific environments directly related to acquiring a cyber situational awareness, typically missing the relationship between incidents registered at the hardware/software level and their impact on the military mission assets and objectives, which consequently bypasses the entire chain of dependencies between strategic, operational, tactical and technical domains. In order to contribute to the mitigation of these gaps, this paper introduces CYSAS-S3, a novel dataset designed and created as a result of a joint research action that explores the principal needs for datasets by cyber defence centres, resulting in the generation of a collection of samples that correlate the impact of selected Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) with each phase of their cyber kill chain, regarding mission-level operations and goals. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced persistent threats; cyber defence; cyber situational awareness; dataset; decision-making advanced persistent threats; cyber defence; cyber situational awareness; dataset; decision-making
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medenou Choumanof, R.D.; Llopis Sanchez, S.; Calzado Mayo, V.M.; Garcia Balufo, M.; Páramo Castrillo, M.; González Garrido, F.J.; Luis Martinez, A.; Nevado Catalán, D.; Hu, A.; Rodríguez-Bermejo, D.S.; Pasqual de Riquelme, G.R.; Sotelo Monge, M.A.; Berardi, A.; De Santis, P.; Torelli, F.; Maestre Vidal, J. Introducing the CYSAS-S3 Dataset for Operationalizing a Mission-Oriented Cyber Situational Awareness. Sensors 2022, 22, 5104. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145104

AMA Style

Medenou Choumanof RD, Llopis Sanchez S, Calzado Mayo VM, Garcia Balufo M, Páramo Castrillo M, González Garrido FJ, Luis Martinez A, Nevado Catalán D, Hu A, Rodríguez-Bermejo DS, Pasqual de Riquelme GR, Sotelo Monge MA, Berardi A, De Santis P, Torelli F, Maestre Vidal J. Introducing the CYSAS-S3 Dataset for Operationalizing a Mission-Oriented Cyber Situational Awareness. Sensors. 2022; 22(14):5104. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Medenou Choumanof, Roumen Daton, Salvador Llopis Sanchez, Victor Manuel Calzado Mayo, Miriam Garcia Balufo, Miguel Páramo Castrillo, Francisco José González Garrido, Alvaro Luis Martinez, David Nevado Catalán, Ao Hu, David Sandoval Rodríguez-Bermejo, Gerardo Ramis Pasqual de Riquelme, Marco Antonio Sotelo Monge, Antonio Berardi, Paolo De Santis, Francesco Torelli, and Jorge Maestre Vidal. 2022. "Introducing the CYSAS-S3 Dataset for Operationalizing a Mission-Oriented Cyber Situational Awareness" Sensors 22, no. 14: 5104. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145104

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