Next Article in Journal
Unified InterPlanetary Smart Parking Network for Maximum End-User Flexibility
Next Article in Special Issue
Electrochemical Properties of Phytosynthesized Gold Nanoparticles for Electrosensing
Previous Article in Journal
Systematic Approach for Remote Sensing of Historical Conflict Landscapes with UAV-Based Laserscanning
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatially Ordered Matrix of Nanostructured Tin–Tungsten Oxides Nanocomposites Formed by Ionic Layer Deposition for Gas Sensing
 
 
Review

Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes for the Monitoring of Chemicals in Water—A Review

1
Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (LPICM), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, IP Paris, 91128 Palaiseau, France
2
Laboratoire Instrumentation, Simulation et Informatique Scientifique (LISIS), Département Composants et Systèmes (COSYS), Université Gustave Eiffel, 77447 Marne-La-Vallée, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abdelhafed Taleb
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010218
Received: 17 November 2021 / Revised: 14 December 2021 / Accepted: 24 December 2021 / Published: 29 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro- and Nanostructures for Sensing Applications)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine high electrical conductivity with high surface area and chemical stability, which makes them very promising for chemical sensing. While water quality monitoring has particularly strong societal and environmental impacts, a lot of critical sensing needs remain unmet by commercial technologies. In the present review, we show across 20 water monitoring analytes and 90 references that carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensors, chemistors and field-effect transistors (chemFET) can meet these needs. A set of 126 additional references provide context and supporting information. After introducing water quality monitoring challenges, the general operation and fabrication principles of CNT water quality sensors are summarized. They are sorted by target analytes (pH, micronutrients and metal ions, nitrogen, hardness, dissolved oxygen, disinfectants, sulfur and miscellaneous) and compared in terms of performances (limit of detection, sensitivity and detection range) and functionalization strategies. For each analyte, the references with best performances are discussed. Overall, the most frequently investigated analytes are H+ (pH) and lead (with 18% of references each), then cadmium (14%) and nitrite (11%). Micronutrients and toxic metals cover 40% of all references. Electrochemical sensors (73%) have been more investigated than chemistors (14%) or FETs (12%). Limits of detection in the ppt range have been reached, for instance Cu(II) detection with a liquid-gated chemFET using SWCNT functionalized with peptide-enhanced polyaniline or Pb(II) detection with stripping voltammetry using MWCNT functionalized with ionic liquid-dithizone based bucky-gel. The large majority of reports address functionalized CNTs (82%) instead of pristine or carboxyl-functionalized CNTs. For analytes where comparison is possible, FET-based and electrochemical transduction yield better performances than chemistors (Cu(II), Hg(II), Ca(II), H2O2); non-functionalized CNTs may yield better performances than functionalized ones (Zn(II), pH and chlorine). View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; nanomaterials; water quality; chemical sensor; chemistor; field effect transistor; electrochemical sensors carbon nanotubes; nanomaterials; water quality; chemical sensor; chemistor; field effect transistor; electrochemical sensors
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, G.; Azzouzi, S.; Zucchi, G.; Lebental, B. Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes for the Monitoring of Chemicals in Water—A Review. Sensors 2022, 22, 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010218

AMA Style

Cho G, Azzouzi S, Zucchi G, Lebental B. Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes for the Monitoring of Chemicals in Water—A Review. Sensors. 2022; 22(1):218. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cho, Gookbin, Sawsen Azzouzi, Gaël Zucchi, and Bérengère Lebental. 2022. "Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes for the Monitoring of Chemicals in Water—A Review" Sensors 22, no. 1: 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010218

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop