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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on the Exhaled Breath of Healthy Adults

1
Amsterdam UMC, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
3
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giorgio Pennazza
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072518
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 28 March 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronics for E-health Sensor Systems)
Environmental factors, such as air pollution, can affect the composition of exhaled breath, and should be well understood before biomarkers in exhaled breath can be used in clinical practice. Our objective was to investigate whether short-term exposures to air pollution can be detected in the exhaled breath profile of healthy adults. In this study, 20 healthy young adults were exposed 2–4 times to the ambient air near a major airport and two highways. Before and after each 5 h exposure, exhaled breath was analyzed using an electronic nose (eNose) consisting of seven different cross-reactive metal-oxide sensors. The discrimination between pre and post-exposure was investigated with multilevel partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA), followed by linear discriminant and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, for all data (71 visits), and for a training (51 visits) and validation set (20 visits). Using all eNose measurements and the training set, discrimination between pre and post-exposure resulted in an area under the ROC curve of 0.83 (95% CI = 0.76–0.89) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.75–0.92), whereas it decreased to 0.66 (95% CI = 0.48–0.84) in the validation set. Short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution potentially influences the exhaled breath profiles of healthy adults, however, the effects may be minimal for regular daily exposures. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; exhaled breath; healthy adults; air pollution; ultrafine particles; exposure; aviation; road traffic electronic nose; exhaled breath; healthy adults; air pollution; ultrafine particles; exposure; aviation; road traffic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lammers, A.; Neerincx, A.H.; Vijverberg, S.J.H.; Longo, C.; Janssen, N.A.H.; Boere, A.J.F.; Brinkman, P.; Cassee, F.R.; van der Zee, A.H.M. The Impact of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on the Exhaled Breath of Healthy Adults. Sensors 2021, 21, 2518. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072518

AMA Style

Lammers A, Neerincx AH, Vijverberg SJH, Longo C, Janssen NAH, Boere AJF, Brinkman P, Cassee FR, van der Zee AHM. The Impact of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on the Exhaled Breath of Healthy Adults. Sensors. 2021; 21(7):2518. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lammers, Ariana; Neerincx, Anne H.; Vijverberg, Susanne J.H.; Longo, Cristina; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Boere, A. J.F.; Brinkman, Paul; Cassee, Flemming R.; van der Zee, Anke H.M. 2021. "The Impact of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on the Exhaled Breath of Healthy Adults" Sensors 21, no. 7: 2518. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072518

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