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Open AccessReview

Metal-Oxide Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Applications in Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors

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Department of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, Physics Science and Earth Science, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno D’Alcontres 31, I-98166 Messina, Italy
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Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno D’Alcontres 31, I-98166 Messina, Italy
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Institute of Advanced Technologies for Energy (ITAE)—CNR, Salita Santa Lucia Sopra Contesse 5, I-98126 Messina, Italy
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Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, India
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Department of Engineering, Messina University, I-98166 Messina, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vittorio M.N. Passaro, Leonhard Reindl, Assefa M. Melesse, Alexander Star, Eduard Llobet, Guillermo Villanueva and Mehmet Rasit Yuce
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072494
Received: 5 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 3 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors: 20th Anniversary)
Pure, mixed and doped metal oxides (MOX) have attracted great interest for the development of electrical and electrochemical sensors since they are cheaper, faster, easier to operate and capable of online analysis and real-time identification. This review focuses on highly sensitive chemoresistive type sensors based on doped-SnO2, RhO, ZnO-Ca, Smx-CoFe2−xO4 semiconductors used to detect toxic gases (H2, CO, NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., acetone, ethanol) in monitoring of gaseous markers in the breath of patients with specific pathologies and for environmental pollution control. Interesting results about the monitoring of biochemical substances as dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin and glucose have been also reported using electrochemical sensors based on hybrid MOX nanocomposite modified glassy carbon and screen-printed carbon electrodes. The fundamental sensing mechanisms and commercial limitations of the MOX-based electrical and electrochemical sensors are discussed providing research directions to bridge the existing gap between new sensing concepts and real-world analytical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal-oxide; nanohybrid; conductometric sensors; gas sensing; electrochemical sensors; biosensing metal-oxide; nanohybrid; conductometric sensors; gas sensing; electrochemical sensors; biosensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fazio, E.; Spadaro, S.; Corsaro, C.; Neri, G.; Leonardi, S.G.; Neri, F.; Lavanya, N.; Sekar, C.; Donato, N.; Neri, G. Metal-Oxide Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Applications in Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors. Sensors 2021, 21, 2494. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072494

AMA Style

Fazio E, Spadaro S, Corsaro C, Neri G, Leonardi SG, Neri F, Lavanya N, Sekar C, Donato N, Neri G. Metal-Oxide Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Applications in Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors. Sensors. 2021; 21(7):2494. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072494

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fazio, Enza; Spadaro, Salvatore; Corsaro, Carmelo; Neri, Giulia; Leonardi, Salvatore G.; Neri, Fortunato; Lavanya, Nehru; Sekar, Chinnathambi; Donato, Nicola; Neri, Giovanni. 2021. "Metal-Oxide Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Applications in Electrical and Electrochemical Sensors" Sensors 21, no. 7: 2494. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072494

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