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Article

Assessing the Stiffness Perception of Acupressure Massage Beginning Learners: A Pilot Study

1
Department of Information and Support, National Institute of Special Needs Education, Yokosuka 239-8585, Japan
2
Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
3
Center for Promoting Education for Persons with Developmental Disabilities, National Institute of Special Needs Education, Yokosuka 239-8585, Japan
4
Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
5
Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Vannozzi
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072472
Received: 16 February 2021 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Visually impaired licensed therapists must have the ability to perceive stiffness through their fingertips in the school for the blind. The teachers strive to provide careful introductory education based on a quantitative assessment of new students’ basic stiffness perception. However, assessment materials to help teachers understand new students’ stiffness perception are lacking. This study aimed to develop suitable fundamental assessment materials that visually impaired licensed teachers could use to quantitatively assess the difference in the stiffness perception ability of beginning learners in the early stages of learning. They were asked to discriminate the presented materials one at a time, which consisted of thermoplastic elastomers with different degrees of stiffness. We used these materials to compare the beginning learners’ ability to perceive stiffness with that of teachers and found that teachers answered correctly at an overall significantly higher rate. Specifically, the teachers’ correct response rate (78.8%) for the stiffness perception of all presented stimuli was approximately 15% higher than the beginning learners’ correct response rate (64.2%). These results revealed areas of stiffness that are difficult for beginning learners to identify. View Full-Text
Keywords: assessment material; stiffness perception; acupressure massage; visual impairment; beginning learner assessment material; stiffness perception; acupressure massage; visual impairment; beginning learner
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doi, K.; Sakaguchi, S.; Nishimura, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Ino, S. Assessing the Stiffness Perception of Acupressure Massage Beginning Learners: A Pilot Study. Sensors 2021, 21, 2472. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072472

AMA Style

Doi K, Sakaguchi S, Nishimura T, Fujimoto H, Ino S. Assessing the Stiffness Perception of Acupressure Massage Beginning Learners: A Pilot Study. Sensors. 2021; 21(7):2472. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072472

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doi, Kouki, Saito Sakaguchi, Takahiro Nishimura, Hiroshi Fujimoto, and Shuichi Ino. 2021. "Assessing the Stiffness Perception of Acupressure Massage Beginning Learners: A Pilot Study" Sensors 21, no. 7: 2472. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072472

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