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Article

Induced Magnetic Field-Based Indoor Positioning System for Underwater Environments

1
Embedded Intelligence, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
2
Embedded Intelligence, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
3
Robotics Innovation Center, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ahmed Toaha Mobashsher and Zhi Sun
Sensors 2021, 21(6), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062218
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 17 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Sensing and Wireless Sensor Networks)
Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) are seen as an emerging technology for maritime exploration but are still restricted by the availability of short range, accurate positioning methods necessary, e.g., when docking remote assets. Typical techniques used for high-accuracy positioning in indoor use case scenarios, such as systems using ultra-wide band radio signals (UWB), cannot be applied for underwater positioning because of the quick absorption of the positioning medium caused by the water. Acoustic and optic solutions for underwater positioning also face known problems, such as the multi-path effects, high propagation delay (acoustics), and environmental dependency. This paper presents an oscillating magnetic field-based indoor and underwater positioning system. Unlike those radio wave-based positioning modalities, the magnetic approach generates a bubble-formed magnetic field that will not be deformed by the environmental variation because of the very similar permeability of water and air. The proposed system achieves an underwater positioning mean accuracy of 13.3 cm in 2D and 19.0 cm in 3D with the multi-lateration positioning method and concludes the potential of the magnetic field-based positioning technique for underwater applications. A similar accuracy was also achieved for various indoor environments that were used to test the influence of cluttered environment and of cross environment. The low cost and power consumption system is scalable for extensive coverage area and could plug-and-play without pre-calibration. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic field; magnetic induction; underwater positioning; AUV positioning and navigation; indoor positioning magnetic field; magnetic induction; underwater positioning; AUV positioning and navigation; indoor positioning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bian, S.; Hevesi, P.; Christensen, L.; Lukowicz, P. Induced Magnetic Field-Based Indoor Positioning System for Underwater Environments. Sensors 2021, 21, 2218. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062218

AMA Style

Bian S, Hevesi P, Christensen L, Lukowicz P. Induced Magnetic Field-Based Indoor Positioning System for Underwater Environments. Sensors. 2021; 21(6):2218. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bian, Sizhen, Peter Hevesi, Leif Christensen, and Paul Lukowicz. 2021. "Induced Magnetic Field-Based Indoor Positioning System for Underwater Environments" Sensors 21, no. 6: 2218. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062218

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