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Article

Ephemeral Keys Authenticated with Merkle Trees and Their Use in IoT Applications

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia
Academic Editor: Raffaele Bruno
Sensors 2021, 21(6), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062036
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 13 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
Public key algorithms based on quasi-cyclic binary moderate-density parity-check codes (QC-MDPCs) and QC low-density parity-check codes (QC-LDPCs) codes for key encapsulation and encryption submitted to the NIST post-quantum competition (Bit Flipping Key Encapsulation (BIKE), QC-MDPC KEM, LEDA) are vulnerable against reaction attacks based on decoding failures. To protect algorithms, authors propose to limit the key usage, in the extreme (BIKE) to only use ephemeral public keys. In some authenticated protocols, we need to combine each key with a signature, which can lead to increased traffic overhead, especially given the large signature sizes of some of the proposed post-quantum signature schemes. We propose to combine ephemeral public keys with a simple Merkle tree to obtain a server authenticated key encapsulation/transport suitable for TLS-like handshake protocols. This allows a very simple public key verification on the client, leading to efficient protocols suitable for Internet of Things applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: ephemeral keys; Merkle tree; authenticated KEM ephemeral keys; Merkle tree; authenticated KEM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zajac, P. Ephemeral Keys Authenticated with Merkle Trees and Their Use in IoT Applications. Sensors 2021, 21, 2036. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062036

AMA Style

Zajac P. Ephemeral Keys Authenticated with Merkle Trees and Their Use in IoT Applications. Sensors. 2021; 21(6):2036. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zajac, Pavol. 2021. "Ephemeral Keys Authenticated with Merkle Trees and Their Use in IoT Applications" Sensors 21, no. 6: 2036. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062036

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