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Article

An Estimation Method of Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform Using Photoplethysmography: A U-Net Architecture-Based Approach

School of Electrical Engineering, Kookimin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kyung-Ah Sohn
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051867
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 March 2021 / Published: 7 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Sensing and Healthcare 2020–2021)
Blood pressure (BP) monitoring has significant importance in the treatment of hypertension and different cardiovascular health diseases. As photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals can be recorded non-invasively, research has been highly conducted to measure BP using PPG recently. In this paper, we propose a U-net deep learning architecture that uses fingertip PPG signal as input to estimate arterial BP (ABP) waveform non-invasively. From this waveform, we have also measured systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The proposed method was evaluated on a subset of 100 subjects from two publicly available databases: MIMIC and MIMIC-III. The predicted ABP waveforms correlated highly with the reference waveforms and we have obtained an average Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.993. The mean absolute error is 3.68 ± 4.42 mmHg for SBP, 1.97 ± 2.92 mmHg for DBP, and 2.17 ± 3.06 mmHg for MAP which satisfy the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standard and obtain grade A according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) standard. The results show that the proposed method is an efficient process to estimate ABP waveform directly using fingertip PPG. View Full-Text
Keywords: arterial blood pressure (ABP); photoplethysmogram (PPG); deep learning; U-net; continuous; non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP); photoplethysmogram (PPG); deep learning; U-net; continuous; non-invasive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Athaya, T.; Choi, S. An Estimation Method of Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform Using Photoplethysmography: A U-Net Architecture-Based Approach. Sensors 2021, 21, 1867. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051867

AMA Style

Athaya T, Choi S. An Estimation Method of Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform Using Photoplethysmography: A U-Net Architecture-Based Approach. Sensors. 2021; 21(5):1867. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051867

Chicago/Turabian Style

Athaya, Tasbiraha, and Sunwoong Choi. 2021. "An Estimation Method of Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform Using Photoplethysmography: A U-Net Architecture-Based Approach" Sensors 21, no. 5: 1867. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051867

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