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Open AccessArticle

Load Resistance Optimization of Bi-Stable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Based on Harmonic Balance

by 1 and 2,3,*
1
Department of Fire Protection and Disaster Management, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea
2
School of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54896, Korea
3
Eco-Friendly Machine Parts Design Research Center, Jeonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54896, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zdenek Hadas, Saša Zelenika and Vikram Pakrashi
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041505
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensors)
In this study, a semi-analytic approach to optimizing the external load resistance of a bi-stable electromagnetic energy harvester is presented based on the harmonic balance method. The harmonic balance analyses for the primary harmonic (period-1T) and two subharmonic (period-3T and 5T) interwell motions of the energy harvester are performed with the Fourier series solutions of the individual motions determined by spectral analyses. For each motion, an optimization problem for maximizing the output power of the energy harvester is formulated based on the harmonic balance solutions and then solved to estimate the optimal external load resistance. The results of a parametric study show that the optimal load resistance significantly depends on the inductive reactance and internal resistance of a solenoid coil––the higher the oscillation frequency of an interwell motion (or the larger the inductance of the coil) is, the larger the optimal load resistance. In particular, when the frequency of the ambient vibration source is relatively high, the non-linear dynamic characteristics of an interwell motion should be considered in the optimization process of the electromagnetic energy harvester. Compared with conventional resistance-matching techniques, the proposed semi-analytic approach could provide a more accurate estimation of the external load resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic energy harvester; bi-stable oscillator; load resistance optimization; frequency response analysis; harmonic balance method electromagnetic energy harvester; bi-stable oscillator; load resistance optimization; frequency response analysis; harmonic balance method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bae, S.; Kim, P. Load Resistance Optimization of Bi-Stable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Based on Harmonic Balance. Sensors 2021, 21, 1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041505

AMA Style

Bae S, Kim P. Load Resistance Optimization of Bi-Stable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Based on Harmonic Balance. Sensors. 2021; 21(4):1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bae, Sungryong; Kim, Pilkee. 2021. "Load Resistance Optimization of Bi-Stable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Based on Harmonic Balance" Sensors 21, no. 4: 1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041505

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