Guided Wave (GW)-based crack monitoring method as a promising method has been widely studied, as this method is sensitive to small cracks and can cover a wide monitoring range. Online crack quantification is difficult as the initiation and growth of crack are affected by various uncertainties. In addition, crack-sensitive GW features are influenced by time-varying conditions which further increase the difficulty in crack quantification. Considering these uncertainties, the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is studied to model the probability distribution of GW features. To further improve the accuracy and stability of crack quantification under uncertainties, this paper proposes a multi-dimensional uniform initialization GMM. First, the multi-channel GW features are integrated to increase the accuracy of crack quantification, as GW features from different channels have different sensitivity to cracks. Then, the uniform initialization method is adopted to provide more stable initial parameters in the expectation-maximization algorithm. In addition, the relationship between the probability migration index of GMMs and crack length is calibrated with fatigue tests on prior specimens. Finally, the proposed method is applied for online crack quantification on the notched specimen of an aircraft spar with complex fan-shaped cracks under uncertainty.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited