# A Review of Techniques for RSS-Based Radiometric Partial Discharge Localization

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Techniques for Radiometric Partial Discharge Measurement

#### 2.1. Characteristics of Radiometric PD

#### 2.2. Time Difference of Arrival PD Measurement

#### 2.3. Received Signal Strength PD Measurement

_{i}and R

_{o}, n, and d

_{i}are the i-th sensor received power and source transmitted power in dBm, path-loss index, and distance from the source, respectively. In free space, n is typically 2 at short distances from the transmitting source. It increases to approximately 4 when ground reflections occur, and it increases further still if the propagation environment contains obstructions or produces multi-path propagation.

#### 2.4. Summary of the Reviewed Literature

- Whilst undersampling acquisition allows for a lower power ADC to be used, the lower sample rate limits the accuracy of the measurement. Conversely, oversampling provides a high level of measurement accuracy, but is limited by the requirement for higher power consumption.
- Schottky diode-based RF power detectors, e.g., LTC5507, can provide an accurate measurement of received power, at no or low power consumption, and can track the fast envelope of a received PD signal. However, their dynamic range is limited due to the requirement for them to operate in the square-law region of the diode.
- Logarithmic power detectors, e.g., AD8307, have high dynamic ranges, typically greater than 70 dB, and have sensitivities typically below −50 dBm. This comes at the cost of increased circuit complexity, and therefore, increased power consumption. Furthermore, they are limited by a response time in the range of hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds.
- Various reported measurements have shown that the typical frequency spectra of many radiometric PD faults are within the 50–800 MHz band. Within this band there exist various transmitted signals that may cause interference to radiometric PD measurement.
- TOA and TDOA radiometric PD detection provides a high level of location accuracy, yet due to the requirement for high-speed sampling, in excess of 1 GSa/s and the requirement for synchronization between sensors, it is not suitable for large-scale monitoring of HV plants.
- RSS PD measurement techniques can alleviate the dependence on excessive conversion rates when used in conjunction with envelope detection. Furthermore, implementation of a large-scale WSN utilizing this technique is simpler because incoherent sensors can be used. However, existing sensors using RSS still require sample rates beyond 10 MSa/s.

## 3. Radiometric PD Detection Using TRI Based WSN

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Gemant and Phillippoff gas-filled void partial discharge (PD) model [7].

**Figure 5.**Time difference of arrival (TDOA) location of a wireless transmission with multilateration [42].

**Figure 6.**A frequency-based RF PD sensor [59].

**Figure 7.**Single channel PD sensor proposed in [56].

**Figure 8.**Advanced single channel PD sensor proposed in [72].

**Figure 10.**An example of a wireless sensor network (WSN) layout in a switchyard to detect PD using the prototype proposed in [74].

**Figure 11.**Block diagram of the sensor node of the PD detection system [74].

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Upton, D.W.; Mistry, K.K.; Mather, P.J.; Zaharis, Z.D.; Atkinson, R.C.; Tachtatzis, C.; Lazaridis, P.I.
A Review of Techniques for RSS-Based Radiometric Partial Discharge Localization. *Sensors* **2021**, *21*, 909.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030909

**AMA Style**

Upton DW, Mistry KK, Mather PJ, Zaharis ZD, Atkinson RC, Tachtatzis C, Lazaridis PI.
A Review of Techniques for RSS-Based Radiometric Partial Discharge Localization. *Sensors*. 2021; 21(3):909.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030909

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Upton, David W., Keyur K. Mistry, Peter J. Mather, Zaharias D. Zaharis, Robert C. Atkinson, Christos Tachtatzis, and Pavlos I. Lazaridis.
2021. "A Review of Techniques for RSS-Based Radiometric Partial Discharge Localization" *Sensors* 21, no. 3: 909.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030909