Subjective and Objective User Behavior Disparity: Towards Balanced Visual Design and Color Adjustment
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Experimental Method
- A low number of colors should be used—a maximum of 10. Too many variants could affect user perception and the course of the experiment;
- Neutral color inclusion: white, black, or gray. These colors play a calming and reassuring role in web design;
- Saturated colors are most often chosen as eye-catching elements on a website.
2.2. Experimental Procedure
2.3. Research Procedure
- Minimum contrast (AA level): Contrast between the background and foreground of at least 4.5:1 (or at least 3:1 for big font size);
- Increased contrast (AAA level): Contrast between the background and foreground of at least 7:1 (or at least 4.5:1 for big font size).
- Measure the relative luminance of each letter (unless they are all uniform) using the formula where R, G and B are defined as: if then else , if then else , if then else , and , , and are defined as: , , .
- Measure the relative luminance of background pixels immediately next to the letter using the same formula.
- Calculate the contrast ratio using the following formula: where L1 is the relative luminance of the lighter of the foreground or background colors, and L2 is the relative luminance of the darker of the foreground or background colors.
- Check that the contrast ratio is equal to or greater than 7:1 It is also possible to use the Color Contrast Analyser software recommended by the WCAG (https://www.tpgi.com/color-contrast-checker accessed on 1 September 2021).
- Case A In this case study, gray was chosen as the primary color. In the second step, all criteria were enabled, and all weights were set to their maximum values, i.e., color contrast—AAA, subjective data—high, objective data—high. The color ranking shows how the gray color matched the other colors. Color matches rank from lowest to highest in terms of criteria settings and their weights. In this case, the gray color matched best with green and then white and yellow.
- Case B In this case study, we kept gray as the primary color. Criteria and their weights were modified. The color contrast criterion and objective data were disabled and did not influence the color ranking. Only subjective data were left and were given the highest weight—high. In this configuration, the color ranking changed. The gray color matched best with yellow and then white and green.
- Case C In this case, all criteria were enabled but with different weights. The color contrast criterion was set to the highest weight—“AAA” and subjective data and objective data had the lowest weight—“low”. In this configuration, gray matched best with black and then green and white.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Lewandowska, A.; Olejnik-Krugly, A.; Jankowski, J.; Dziśko, M. Subjective and Objective User Behavior Disparity: Towards Balanced Visual Design and Color Adjustment. Sensors 2021, 21, 8502. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248502
Lewandowska A, Olejnik-Krugly A, Jankowski J, Dziśko M. Subjective and Objective User Behavior Disparity: Towards Balanced Visual Design and Color Adjustment. Sensors. 2021; 21(24):8502. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248502Chicago/Turabian Style
Lewandowska, Anna, Agnieszka Olejnik-Krugly, Jarosław Jankowski, and Malwina Dziśko. 2021. "Subjective and Objective User Behavior Disparity: Towards Balanced Visual Design and Color Adjustment" Sensors 21, no. 24: 8502. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248502