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Article

Effects of Concurrent and Terminal Visual Feedback on Ankle Co-Contraction in Older Adults during Standing Balance

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
4
Robotics Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Andrea Casula
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7305; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217305
Received: 1 October 2021 / Revised: 22 October 2021 / Accepted: 26 October 2021 / Published: 2 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feedback-Based Balance, Gait Assistive and Rehabilitation Aids)
This preliminary investigation studied the effects of concurrent and terminal visual feedback during a standing balance task on ankle co-contraction, which was accomplished via surface electromyography of an agonist–antagonist muscle pair (medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles). Two complementary mathematical definitions of co-contraction indices captured changes in ankle muscle recruitment and modulation strategies. Nineteen healthy older adults received both feedback types in a randomized order. Following an analysis of co-contraction index reliability as a function of surface electromyography normalization technique, linear mixed-effects regression analyses revealed participants learned or utilized different ankle co-contraction recruitment (i.e., relative muscle pair activity magnitudes) and modulation (i.e., absolute muscle pair activity magnitudes) strategies depending on feedback type and following the cessation of feedback use. Ankle co-contraction modulation increased when concurrent feedback was used and significantly decreased when concurrent feedback was removed. Ankle co-contraction recruitment and modulation did not significantly change when terminal feedback was used or when it was removed. Neither ankle co-contraction recruitment nor modulation was significantly different when concurrent feedback was used compared to when terminal feedback was used. The changes in ankle co-contraction recruitment and modulation were significantly different when concurrent feedback was removed as compared to when terminal feedback was removed. Finally, this study found a significant interaction between feedback type, removal of feedback, and order of use of feedback type. These results have implications for the design of balance training technologies using visual feedback. View Full-Text
Keywords: balance; visual feedback; sensory augmentation; older adult; wearable sensors; surface electromyography balance; visual feedback; sensory augmentation; older adult; wearable sensors; surface electromyography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vitali, R.V.; Barone, V.J.; Ferris, J.; Stirling, L.A.; Sienko, K.H. Effects of Concurrent and Terminal Visual Feedback on Ankle Co-Contraction in Older Adults during Standing Balance. Sensors 2021, 21, 7305. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217305

AMA Style

Vitali RV, Barone VJ, Ferris J, Stirling LA, Sienko KH. Effects of Concurrent and Terminal Visual Feedback on Ankle Co-Contraction in Older Adults during Standing Balance. Sensors. 2021; 21(21):7305. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217305

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vitali, Rachel V., Vincent J. Barone, Jamie Ferris, Leia A. Stirling, and Kathleen H. Sienko. 2021. "Effects of Concurrent and Terminal Visual Feedback on Ankle Co-Contraction in Older Adults during Standing Balance" Sensors 21, no. 21: 7305. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217305

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