Next Article in Journal
Inertial Measurement of Head Tilt in Rodents: Principles and Applications to Vestibular Research
Next Article in Special Issue
Metamaterial-Integrated High-Gain Rectenna for RF Sensing and Energy Harvesting Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Transfer Learning in Wastewater Treatment Plant Control Design: From Conventional to Long Short-Term Memory-Based Controllers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hybrid Active-and-Passive Relaying Model for 6G-IoT Greencom Networks with SWIPT
Article

System Implementation Trade-Offs for Low-Speed Rotational Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters

1
Department of Electronics Design, Mid Sweden University, 85170 Sundsvall, Sweden
2
Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carlo Trigona, Olfa Kanoun and Slim Naifar
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6317; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186317
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 18 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
Low-power energy harvesting has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative for the power supply of next-generation smart sensors and IoT end devices. In many cases, the output of kinetic energy harvesters is an alternating current (AC) requiring rectification in order to supply the electronic load. The rectifier design and selection can have a considerable influence on the energy harvesting system performance in terms of extracted output power and conversion losses. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of three passive rectifiers in a low-power, low-voltage electromagnetic energy harvesting sub-system, namely the full-wave bridge rectifier (FWR), the voltage doubler (VD), and the negative voltage converter rectifier (NVC). Based on a variable reluctance energy harvesting system, we investigate each of the rectifiers with respect to their performance and their effect on the overall energy extraction. We conduct experiments under the conditions of a low-speed rotational energy harvesting application with rotational speeds of 5 rpm to 20 rpm, and verify the experiments in an end-to-end energy harvesting evaluation. Two performance metrics—power conversion efficiency (PCE) and power extraction efficiency (PEE)—are obtained from the measurements to evaluate the performance of the system implementation adopting each of the rectifiers. The results show that the FWR with PEEs of 20% at 5 rpm to 40% at 20 rpm has a low performance in comparison to the VD (40–60%) and NVC (20–70%) rectifiers. The VD-based interface circuit demonstrates the best performance under low rotational speeds, whereas the NVC outperforms the VD at higher speeds (>18 rpm). Finally, the end-to-end system evaluation is conducted with a self-powered rpm sensing system, which demonstrates an improved performance with the VD rectifier implementation reaching the system’s maximum sampling rate (40 Hz) at a rotational speed of approximately 15.5 rpm. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; rotational energy harvesting; kinetic energy harvesting; variable reluctance; self-powered sensors; internet of things; smart sensors energy harvesting; rotational energy harvesting; kinetic energy harvesting; variable reluctance; self-powered sensors; internet of things; smart sensors
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, Y.; Bader, S.; Magno, M.; Mayer, P.; Oelmann, B. System Implementation Trade-Offs for Low-Speed Rotational Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters. Sensors 2021, 21, 6317. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186317

AMA Style

Xu Y, Bader S, Magno M, Mayer P, Oelmann B. System Implementation Trade-Offs for Low-Speed Rotational Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters. Sensors. 2021; 21(18):6317. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186317

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Ye, Sebastian Bader, Michele Magno, Philipp Mayer, and Bengt Oelmann. 2021. "System Implementation Trade-Offs for Low-Speed Rotational Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesters" Sensors 21, no. 18: 6317. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186317

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop