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Article

A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles

1
Department of Computer Science, Electrical & Space Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
2
Department of Computer Science (DIDA), Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden
3
Institute of Computer Science, Data Systems Research Group, Tartu University, 51009 Tartu, Estonia
4
Cyber and Network Security Department, Community College Qatar, Doha 00974, Qatar
5
Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
6
Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Fatih Kurugollu, Chaker Abdelaziz Kerrache, Farhan Ahmad, Syed Hassan Ahmed and Rasheed Hussain
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6018; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186018
Received: 18 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Connected and Autonomous Internet of Vehicles)
Continuous and emerging advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have enabled Internet-of-Things (IoT)-to-Cloud applications to be induced by data pipelines and Edge Intelligence-based architectures. Advanced vehicular networks greatly benefit from these architectures due to the implicit functionalities that are focused on realizing the Internet of Vehicle (IoV) vision. However, IoV is susceptible to attacks, where adversaries can easily exploit existing vulnerabilities. Several attacks may succeed due to inadequate or ineffective authentication techniques. Hence, there is a timely need for hardening the authentication process through cutting-edge access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a Blockchain-based Multi-Factor authentication model that uses an embedded Digital Signature (MFBC_eDS) for vehicular clouds and Cloud-enabled IoV. Our proposed MFBC_eDS model consists of a scheme that integrates the Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML) to the Single Sign-On (SSO) capabilities for a connected edge to cloud ecosystem. MFBC_eDS draws an essential comparison with the baseline authentication scheme suggested by Karla and Sood. Based on the foundations of Karla and Sood’s scheme, an embedded Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm (ePPTA) and an additional Hash function for the Pi generated during Karla and Sood’s authentication were proposed and discussed. The preliminary analysis of the proposition shows that the approach is more suitable to counter major adversarial attacks in an IoV-centered environment based on the Dolev–Yao adversarial model while satisfying aspects of the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) triad. View Full-Text
Keywords: blockchain; multi-factor authentication; access control; Internet of Vehicles; cloud-enabled systems blockchain; multi-factor authentication; access control; Internet of Vehicles; cloud-enabled systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kebande, V.R.; Awaysheh, F.M.; Ikuesan, R.A.; Alawadi, S.A.; Alshehri, M.D. A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles. Sensors 2021, 21, 6018. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186018

AMA Style

Kebande VR, Awaysheh FM, Ikuesan RA, Alawadi SA, Alshehri MD. A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles. Sensors. 2021; 21(18):6018. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kebande, Victor R., Feras M. Awaysheh, Richard A. Ikuesan, Sadi A. Alawadi, and Mohammad D. Alshehri 2021. "A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles" Sensors 21, no. 18: 6018. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186018

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