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Article

Communication-Efficient Tracking of Unknown, Spatially Correlated Signals in Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks: Two Machine Learning Approaches

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School of Polytechnic, College of Engineering, Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA
Current address: 2101 E Coliseum Blvd, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA.
Academic Editor: Boon-Chong Seet
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5175; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155175
Received: 22 June 2021 / Revised: 27 July 2021 / Accepted: 28 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
A low-cost machine learning (ML) algorithm is proposed and discussed for spatial tracking of unknown, correlated signals in localized, ad-hoc wireless sensor networks. Each sensor is modeled as one neuron and a selected subset of these neurons are called to identify the spatial signal. The algorithm is implemented in two phases of spatial modeling and spatial tracking. The spatial signal is modeled using its M iso-contour lines at levels {j}j=1M and those sensors that their sensor observations are in Δ margin of any of these levels report their sensor observations to the fusion center (FC) for spatial signal reconstruction. In spatial modeling phase, the number of these contour lines, their levels and a proper Δ are identified. In this phase, the algorithm may either use adaptive-weight stochastic gradient or scaled stochastic gradient method to select a proper Δ. Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with zero mean is assumed along with the sensor observations. To reduce the observation noise’s effect, each sensor applies moving average filter on its observation to drastically reduce the effect of noise. The modeling performance, the cost and the convergence of the algorithm are discussed based on extensive computer simulations and reasoning. The algorithm is proposed for climate and environmental monitoring. In this paper, the percentage of wireless sensors that initiate a communication attempt is assumed as cost. The performance evaluation results show that the proposed spatial tracking approach is low-cost and can model the spatial signal over time with the same performance as that of spatial modeling. View Full-Text
Keywords: machine learning; spatial signal modeling; spatial tracking; signal processing; ad-hoc sensor network machine learning; spatial signal modeling; spatial tracking; signal processing; ad-hoc sensor network
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alasti, H. Communication-Efficient Tracking of Unknown, Spatially Correlated Signals in Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks: Two Machine Learning Approaches. Sensors 2021, 21, 5175. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155175

AMA Style

Alasti H. Communication-Efficient Tracking of Unknown, Spatially Correlated Signals in Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks: Two Machine Learning Approaches. Sensors. 2021; 21(15):5175. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alasti, Hadi. 2021. "Communication-Efficient Tracking of Unknown, Spatially Correlated Signals in Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks: Two Machine Learning Approaches" Sensors 21, no. 15: 5175. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155175

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