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Article

Biochemical Methanol Gas Sensor (MeOH Bio-Sniffer) for Non-Invasive Assessment of Intestinal Flora from Breath Methanol

1
Department of Biomedical Devices and Instrumentation, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan
2
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
3
Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roberto Pizzoferrato
Sensors 2021, 21(14), 4897; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144897
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Chemical Sensors: Design and Applications)
Methanol (MeOH) in exhaled breath has potential for non-invasive assessment of intestinal flora. In this study, we have developed a biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for MeOH in the gas phase using fluorometry and a cascade reaction with two enzymes, alcohol oxidase (AOD) and formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH). In the cascade reaction, oxidation of MeOH was initially catalyzed by AOD to produce formaldehyde, and then this formaldehyde was successively oxidized via FALDH catalysis together with reduction of oxidized form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). As a result of the cascade reaction, reduced form of NAD (NADH) was produced, and MeOH vapor was measured by detecting autofluorescence of NADH. In the development of the MeOH bio-sniffer, three conditions were optimized: selecting a suitable FALDH for better discrimination of MeOH from ethanol in the cascade reaction; buffer pH that maximizes the cascade reaction; and materials and methods to prevent leaking of NAD+ solution from an AOD-FALDH membrane. The dynamic range of the constructed MeOH bio-sniffer was 0.32–20 ppm, which encompassed the MeOH concentration in exhaled breath of healthy people. The measurement of exhaled breath of a healthy subject showed a similar sensorgram to the standard MeOH vapor. These results suggest that the MeOH bio-sniffer exploiting the cascade reaction will become a powerful tool for the non-invasive intestinal flora testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: intestinal flora; methanol; gas-phase biosensor; enzymatic cascade reaction; fluorescence intestinal flora; methanol; gas-phase biosensor; enzymatic cascade reaction; fluorescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toma, K.; Iwasaki, K.; Zhang, G.; Iitani, K.; Arakawa, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Mitsubayashi, K. Biochemical Methanol Gas Sensor (MeOH Bio-Sniffer) for Non-Invasive Assessment of Intestinal Flora from Breath Methanol. Sensors 2021, 21, 4897. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144897

AMA Style

Toma K, Iwasaki K, Zhang G, Iitani K, Arakawa T, Iwasaki Y, Mitsubayashi K. Biochemical Methanol Gas Sensor (MeOH Bio-Sniffer) for Non-Invasive Assessment of Intestinal Flora from Breath Methanol. Sensors. 2021; 21(14):4897. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144897

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toma, Koji, Kanako Iwasaki, Geng Zhang, Kenta Iitani, Takahiro Arakawa, Yasuhiko Iwasaki, and Kohji Mitsubayashi. 2021. "Biochemical Methanol Gas Sensor (MeOH Bio-Sniffer) for Non-Invasive Assessment of Intestinal Flora from Breath Methanol" Sensors 21, no. 14: 4897. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144897

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