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Article

Framework for In-Field Analyses of Performance and Sub-Technique Selection in Standing Para Cross-Country Skiers

1
Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS, 5008 Bergen, Norway
3
Faculty of Health, Medicine & Life Sciences, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vesa Linnamo
Sensors 2021, 21(14), 4876; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144876
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 11 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 17 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Technology for Sports Monitoring)
Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of a framework based on micro-sensor technology for in-field analyses of performance and sub-technique selection in Para cross-country (XC) skiing by using it to compare these parameters between elite standing Para (two men; one woman) and able-bodied (AB) (three men; four women) XC skiers during a classical skiing race. The data from a global navigation satellite system and inertial measurement unit were integrated to compare time loss and selected sub-techniques as a function of speed. Compared to male/female AB skiers, male/female Para skiers displayed 19/14% slower average speed with the largest time loss (65 ± 36/35 ± 6 s/lap) found in uphill terrain. Female Para/AB skiers utilized DP, DK, and DIA, 61/43%, 15/10%, and 25/47% of the distance at low speeds, respectively, while the corresponding numbers for male Para/AB skiers were 58/18%, 1/13%, and 40/69%. At higher speeds, female Para/AB skiers utilized DP and OTHER, 26/52% and 74/48% of the distance, respectively, while corresponding numbers for male Para/AB skiers were 29/66% and 71/34%. This indicates different speed thresholds of the classical sub-techniques for Para than AB skiers. The framework provides a point of departure for large-scale international investigations of performance and related factors in Para XC skiing. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-sensor technology; GNSS; IMU; disability; heterogenous group; cross-country skiing race; performance analysis; sub-technique classification; time factor micro-sensor technology; GNSS; IMU; disability; heterogenous group; cross-country skiing race; performance analysis; sub-technique classification; time factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carlsen, C.H.; Kathrin Baumgart, J.; Kocbach, J.; Haugnes, P.; Paulussen, E.M.B.; Sandbakk, Ø. Framework for In-Field Analyses of Performance and Sub-Technique Selection in Standing Para Cross-Country Skiers. Sensors 2021, 21, 4876. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144876

AMA Style

Carlsen CH, Kathrin Baumgart J, Kocbach J, Haugnes P, Paulussen EMB, Sandbakk Ø. Framework for In-Field Analyses of Performance and Sub-Technique Selection in Standing Para Cross-Country Skiers. Sensors. 2021; 21(14):4876. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144876

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carlsen, Camilla H., Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Jan Kocbach, Pål Haugnes, Evy M. B. Paulussen, and Øyvind Sandbakk. 2021. "Framework for In-Field Analyses of Performance and Sub-Technique Selection in Standing Para Cross-Country Skiers" Sensors 21, no. 14: 4876. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144876

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