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Article

Toward an Estimation of the Optical Feedback Factor C on the Fly for Displacement Sensing

1
LAAS-CNRS, University of Toulouse, INP-ENSEEIHT, 31000 Toulouse, France
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, NUST, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103528
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Issue – Optical Sensors)
In this paper, a method based on the inherent event-based sampling capability of laser optical feedback interferometry (OFI) is proposed to assess the optical feedback factor C when the laser operates in the moderate and strong feedback regimes. Most of the phase unwrapping open-loop OFI algorithms rely on the estimation of C to retrieve the displacement with nanometric precision. Here, the proposed method operates in open-loop configuration and relies only on OFI’s fringe detection, thereby improving its robustness and ease of use. The proposed method is able to estimate C with a precision of <5%. The obtained performances are compared to three different approaches previously published and the impacts of phase noise and sampling frequency are reported. We also show that this method can assess C on the fly even when C is varying due to speckle. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, these are the first reported results of time-varying C estimation. In addition, through C estimation over time, it could pave the way not only to higher performance phase unwrapping algorithms but also to a better control of the optical feedback level via the use of an adaptive lens and thus to better displacement retrieval performances. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical feedback interferometry; self-mixing; speckle; optical feedback factor; displacement measurement; non-uniform sampling optical feedback interferometry; self-mixing; speckle; optical feedback factor; displacement measurement; non-uniform sampling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bernal, O.D.; Zabit, U.; Jayat, F.; Bosch, T. Toward an Estimation of the Optical Feedback Factor C on the Fly for Displacement Sensing. Sensors 2021, 21, 3528. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103528

AMA Style

Bernal OD, Zabit U, Jayat F, Bosch T. Toward an Estimation of the Optical Feedback Factor C on the Fly for Displacement Sensing. Sensors. 2021; 21(10):3528. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bernal, Olivier D., Usman Zabit, Francis Jayat, and Thierry Bosch. 2021. "Toward an Estimation of the Optical Feedback Factor C on the Fly for Displacement Sensing" Sensors 21, no. 10: 3528. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103528

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