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Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging for the Evaluation of Chromophore Concentration

1
Univ. Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, CREATIS UMR 5220, U1206, F-69621 Lyon, France
2
Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
3
College of Engineering and Technology, American University of the Middle East, Kuwait, Kuwait
4
CNRS UMR5286 INSERM U1052 Center de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France
5
Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69000 Lyon, France
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Centre Léon Bérard, F-69008 Lyon, France
7
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, 06300 Nice, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jakub Nalepa
Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3366; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103366
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Multi- and Hyperspectral Image Analysis)
Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a powerful noninvasive medical imaging technique that provides access to functional information. In this study, a set of methods is proposed and validated, with experimental multispectral photoacoustic images used to estimate the concentration of chromophores. The unmixing techniques used in this paper consist of two steps: (1) automatic extraction of the reference spectrum of each pure chromophore; and (2) abundance calculation of each pure chromophore from the estimated reference spectra. The compared strategies bring positivity and sum-to-one constraints, from the hyperspectral remote sensing field to multispectral photoacoustic, to evaluate chromophore concentration. Particularly, the study extracts the endmembers and compares the algorithms from the hyperspectral remote sensing domain and a dedicated algorithm for segmentation of multispectral photoacoustic data to this end. First, these strategies are tested with dilution and mixing of chromophores on colored 4% agar phantom data. Then, some preliminary in vivo experiments are performed. These consist of estimations of the oxygen saturation rate (sO2) in mouse tumors. This article proposes then a proof-of-concept of the interest to bring hyperspectral remote sensing algorithms to multispectral photoacoustic imaging for the estimation of chromophore concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic imaging; spectral unmixing; blood oxygen concentration evaluation photoacoustic imaging; spectral unmixing; blood oxygen concentration evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dolet, A.; Ammanouil, R.; Petrilli, V.; Richard, C.; Tortoli, P.; Vray, D.; Varray, F. In Vitro and In Vivo Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging for the Evaluation of Chromophore Concentration. Sensors 2021, 21, 3366. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103366

AMA Style

Dolet A, Ammanouil R, Petrilli V, Richard C, Tortoli P, Vray D, Varray F. In Vitro and In Vivo Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging for the Evaluation of Chromophore Concentration. Sensors. 2021; 21(10):3366. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103366

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dolet, Aneline, Rita Ammanouil, Virginie Petrilli, Cédric Richard, Piero Tortoli, Didier Vray, and François Varray. 2021. "In Vitro and In Vivo Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging for the Evaluation of Chromophore Concentration" Sensors 21, no. 10: 3366. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103366

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