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Article

Vision-Based Suture Tensile Force Estimation in Robotic Surgery

Department of Mechanical, Robotics and Energy Engineering, Dongguk University, 30, Pildong-ro 1gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04620, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010110
Received: 3 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 26 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Technology for Medical Robotics)
Compared to laparoscopy, robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery has the problem of an absence of force feedback, which is important to prevent a breakage of the suture. To overcome this problem, surgeons infer the suture force from their proprioception and 2D image by comparing them to the training experience. Based on this idea, a deep-learning-based method using a single image and robot position to estimate the tensile force of the sutures without a force sensor is proposed. A neural network structure with a modified Inception Resnet-V2 and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks is used to estimate the suture pulling force. The feasibility of proposed network is verified using the generated DB, recording the interaction under the condition of two different artificial skins and two different situations (in vivo and in vitro) at 13 viewing angles of the images by changing the tool positions collected from the master-slave robotic system. From the evaluation conducted to show the feasibility of the interaction force estimation, the proposed learning models successfully estimated the tensile force at 10 unseen viewing angles during training. View Full-Text
Keywords: force estimation; interaction force; neural networks; machine learning; minimally invasive surgery; suture tensile force force estimation; interaction force; neural networks; machine learning; minimally invasive surgery; suture tensile force
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, W.-J.; Kwak, K.-S.; Lim, S.-C. Vision-Based Suture Tensile Force Estimation in Robotic Surgery. Sensors 2021, 21, 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010110

AMA Style

Jung W-J, Kwak K-S, Lim S-C. Vision-Based Suture Tensile Force Estimation in Robotic Surgery. Sensors. 2021; 21(1):110. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010110

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Won-Jo, Kyung-Soo Kwak, and Soo-Chul Lim. 2021. "Vision-Based Suture Tensile Force Estimation in Robotic Surgery" Sensors 21, no. 1: 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010110

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