A long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) adapts the ALOHA network concept for channel access, resulting in packet collisions caused by intra- and inter-spreading factor (SF) interference. This leads to a high packet loss ratio. In LoRaWAN, each end device (ED) increments the SF after every two consecutive failed retransmissions, thus forcing the EDs to use a high SF. When numerous EDs switch to the highest SF, the network loses its advantage of orthogonality. Thus, the collision probability of the ED packets increases drastically. In this study, we propose two SF allocation schemes to enhance the packet success ratio by lowering the impact of interference. The first scheme, called the channel-adaptive SF recovery algorithm, increments or decrements the SF based on the retransmission of the ED packets, indicating the channel status in the network. The second approach allocates SF to EDs based on ED sensitivity during the initial deployment. These schemes are validated through extensive simulations by considering the channel interference in both confirmed and unconfirmed modes of LoRaWAN. Through simulation results, we show that the SFs have been adaptively applied to each ED, and the proposed schemes enhance the packet success delivery ratio as compared to the typical SF allocation schemes.
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