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Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Signal Propagation in Soil for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

1
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
2
Shanghai Institute of Disaster Prevention and Relief, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2580; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092580
Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 22 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSNs), an important part of Internet of things (IoT), have many promising applications in various scenarios. Signal transmission in natural soil undergoes path loss due to absorption, radiation, reflection and scattering. The variability and dynamic of soil conditions and complexity of signal attenuation behavior make the accurate estimation of signal path loss challenging. Two existing propagation models for predicting path loss are reviewed and compared. Friis model does not consider the reflection loss and is only applicable in the far field region. The Fresnel model, only applicable in the near field region, has not considered the radiating loss and wavelength change loss. A new two stage model is proposed based on the field characteristics of antenna and considers four sources of path loss. The two stage model has a different coefficient m in the near field and far field regions. The far field distance of small size antenna is determined by three criteria: 2 D2/λ, 5 D, 1.6 λ in the proposed model. The proposed two stage model has a better agreement with the field experiment data compared to Friis and Fresnel models. The coefficient m is dependent on the soil types for the proposed model in near field region. It is observed from experiment data that the m value is in the range of 0~0.20 for sandy soils and 0.433~0.837 for clayey silt. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless underground sensor networks; theoretical study; experimental study; signal propagation model wireless underground sensor networks; theoretical study; experimental study; signal propagation model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, H.; Shi, J.; Wang, F.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, D. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Signal Propagation in Soil for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks. Sensors 2020, 20, 2580. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092580

AMA Style

Huang H, Shi J, Wang F, Zhang D, Zhang D. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Signal Propagation in Soil for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2020; 20(9):2580. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092580

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Hongwei; Shi, Jingkang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Dongming; Zhang, Dongmei. 2020. "Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Signal Propagation in Soil for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks" Sensors 20, no. 9: 2580. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092580

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