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Open AccessArticle

Feasibility of Consumer Grade GNSS Receivers for the Integration in Multi-Sensor-Systems

by 1,*,† and 2,†
1
Institut für Erdmessung, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying, Clausthal University of Technology, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092463
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Various GNSS applications require low-cost, small-scale, lightweight and power-saving GNSS devices and require high precision in terms of low noise for carrier phase and code observations. Applications vary from navigation approaches to positioning in geo-monitoring units up to integration in multi-sensor-systems. For highest precision, only GNSS receivers are suitable that provide access to raw data such as carrier phase, code ranges, Doppler and signal strength. A system integration is only possible if the overall noise level is known and quantified at the level of the original observations. A benchmark analysis based on a zero baseline is proposed to quantify the stochastic properties. The performance of the consumer grade GNSS receiver is determined and evaluated against geodetic GNSS receivers to better understand the utilization of consumer grade receivers. Results indicate high similarity to the geodetic receiver, even though technical limitations are present. Various stochastic techniques report normally distributed carrier-phase noise of 2 mm and code-range noise of 0.5–0.8 m. This is confirmed by studying the modified Allan standard deviation and code-minus-carrier combinations. Derived parameters serve as important indicators for the integration of GNSS receivers into multi-sensor-systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; high sensitivity GNSS receiver; multi-sensor-system; direct geo-referencing; laser scanning GNSS; high sensitivity GNSS receiver; multi-sensor-system; direct geo-referencing; laser scanning
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.25835/0034324
    Link: https://doi.org/10.25835/0034324
    Description: GNSS mass market and geodetic receiver benchmark study - dataset
MDPI and ACS Style

Kersten, T.; Paffenholz, J.-A. Feasibility of Consumer Grade GNSS Receivers for the Integration in Multi-Sensor-Systems. Sensors 2020, 20, 2463. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092463

AMA Style

Kersten T, Paffenholz J-A. Feasibility of Consumer Grade GNSS Receivers for the Integration in Multi-Sensor-Systems. Sensors. 2020; 20(9):2463. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092463

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kersten, Tobias; Paffenholz, Jens-André. 2020. "Feasibility of Consumer Grade GNSS Receivers for the Integration in Multi-Sensor-Systems" Sensors 20, no. 9: 2463. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092463

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