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Article

In-Situ LED-Based Observation of Snow Surface and Depth Transects

Department of Geography, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082292
Received: 7 March 2020 / Revised: 11 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
As part of a new snowpack monitoring framework, this study evaluated the feasibility of using an LED LIDAR (Leddar) time of flight sensor for snowpack depth measurement. The Leddar sensor has two additional features over simple sonic ranging sensors: (i) the return signal is divided into 16 segments across a 48° field of view, each recording individual distance-to-target (DTT) measurements; (ii) an index of reflectance or intensity signal is recorded for each segment. These two features provide information describing snowpack morphology and surface condition. The accuracy of Leddar sensor DTT measurements for snow depth monitoring was found to be < 20 mm, which was better than the 50 mm quoted by the manufacturer, and the precision was < 5 mm. Leddar and independent sonic ranger snow depth measurement showed strong linear agreement (r2 = 0.98). There was also a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.98) between Leddar and manual field snow depth measurements. The intensity signal response was found to correlate with snow surface albedo and inversely with air temperature (r = 0.77 and −0.77, respectively). View Full-Text
Keywords: Leddar; snowpack depth; LIDAR; LED LIDAR; sonic ranging device; intensity Leddar; snowpack depth; LIDAR; LED LIDAR; sonic ranging device; intensity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barnes, C.; Hopkinson, C.; Porter, T.; Xi, Z. In-Situ LED-Based Observation of Snow Surface and Depth Transects. Sensors 2020, 20, 2292. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082292

AMA Style

Barnes C, Hopkinson C, Porter T, Xi Z. In-Situ LED-Based Observation of Snow Surface and Depth Transects. Sensors. 2020; 20(8):2292. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082292

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barnes, Celeste, Chris Hopkinson, Thomas Porter, and Zhouxin Xi. 2020. "In-Situ LED-Based Observation of Snow Surface and Depth Transects" Sensors 20, no. 8: 2292. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082292

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