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Open AccessArticle

Frequency-Coded Chipless RFID Tags: Notch Model, Detection, Angular Orientation, and Coverage Measurements

Institute of Digital Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
Benha Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, 13511 Benha, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1843;
Received: 3 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Communications)
This paper focuses on the frequency coded chipless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) wherein the tag’s information bits are physically encoded by the resonators’ notch position which has an effect on the frequency spectrum of the backscattered or retransmitted signal of the tag. In this regard, the notch analytical model is developed to consider the notch position and quality factor. Besides, the radar cross section (RCS) mathematical representation of the tag is introduced to consider the incident wave’s polarization and orientation angles. Hence, the influences of the incident wave’s orientation and polarization mismatches on the detection performance are quantified. After that, the tag measurement errors and limitations are comprehensively explained. Therefore, approaches to measureing RCS- and retransmission-based tags are introduced. Furthermore, the maximum reading range is theoretically calculated and practically verified considering the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Ultra Wideband (UWB) regulations. In all simulations and experiments conducted, a mono-static configuration is considered, in which one antenna is utilized for transmission and reception.
Keywords: chipless RFID; angular dependency; measurements chipless RFID; angular dependency; measurements
MDPI and ACS Style

Alam, J.; Khaliel, M.; Fawky, A.; El-Awamry, A.; Kaiser, T. Frequency-Coded Chipless RFID Tags: Notch Model, Detection, Angular Orientation, and Coverage Measurements. Sensors 2020, 20, 1843.

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