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Optimal Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks in Semi-Enclosed Estuaries

1
Marine Disaster Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan 49111, Korea
2
Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051498
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 March 2020 / Published: 9 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
The semi-enclosed estuary is very susceptible to changes in the physical and environmental characteristics of the inflow from the land. Therefore, continuous and comprehensive monitoring of such changes is necessary for managing the estuary. Nevertheless, the procedure or framework has not been proposed appropriately to determine how many instruments are necessary and where they need to be monitored and standardized to detect critical changes. The present work proposes a systematical strategy for the deployments of the monitoring array by using the combination of graphical optimization with the objective mapping technique. In order to reflect the spatiotemporal characteristics of the bay, the representative variables and eigenvectors were determined by the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), and the cosine angle among them calculated and used as a design index of optimization. At the recommended locations, the sampled representative variables were interpolated to reconstruct their spatiotemporal distribution and compared with the true distribution. The analysis confirmed that the selected locations, even with a minimal number of points, can be used for on-site monitoring. In addition, the present framework suggests how to determine installable regions for real-time monitoring stations, which reflect the global and local characteristics of the semi-enclosed estuary. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal design procedure; monitoring network; water quality; graphical optimization; objective mapping optimal design procedure; monitoring network; water quality; graphical optimization; objective mapping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, N.-H.; Hwang, J.H. Optimal Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks in Semi-Enclosed Estuaries. Sensors 2020, 20, 1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051498

AMA Style

Kim N-H, Hwang JH. Optimal Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks in Semi-Enclosed Estuaries. Sensors. 2020; 20(5):1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Nam-Hoon, and Jin H. Hwang 2020. "Optimal Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks in Semi-Enclosed Estuaries" Sensors 20, no. 5: 1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051498

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